Oxygen

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Let’s learn about OGANESSON!

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Oganesson is a (produced by people/not naturally-occurring) chemical element with the symbol Og and atomic number 118. It was first made/created in 2002 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, near Moscow, Russia, by a combined team of Russian and American scientists. In December 2015, it was recognized as one of four new elements by the Joint Working Party of the international scientific bodies IUPAC and IUPAP. It was formally named on 28 November 2016.[16][17] The name honors the nuclear physicist Yuri Oganessian, who played a leading role in the discovery of the heaviest elements in the list of all elements. It is one of only two elements named after a person who was alive at the time of naming, the other being seaborgium, and the only element whose eponym is alive today.[18]

Oganesson has the highest atomic number and highest atomic mass of all known elements. The radioactive oganesson atom is very unstable, and since 2005, only five (possibly six) atoms of the isotope oganesson-294 have been detected.[19] Although this allowed very little experimental description of its properties and possible compounds, (related to ideas about how things work or why they happen) calculations have resulted in many (statements about possible future events), including some surprising ones. For example, although oganesson is a member of group 18 (the noble gases) – the first (produced by people/not naturally-occurring) element to be so – it may be significantly (causing reactions from other people or chemicals), unlike all the other elements of that group.[3] It was before now thought to be a gas under (usual/ commonly and regular/ healthy) conditions but is now (described a possible future event) to be a solid due to relativistic effects.[3] On the list of all elements of the elements it is a p-block element and the last one of period 7.

Other than nuclear properties, no properties of oganesson or its compounds have been measured; this is due to its very limited and expensive production[26] and the fact that it (rots/becomes ruined/gets worse) very quickly. This way only (statements about possible future events) are available.

Nuclear (firm and steady nature/lasting nature/strength) and isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of oganesson

Oganesson (row 118) is (a) little above the “island of (firm and steady nature/lasting nature/strength)” (white circle) and so its centers (of cells or atoms) are (a) little more stable than otherwise (described a possible future event).
The (firm and steady nature/lasting nature/strength) of centers (of cells or atoms) quickly decreases with the increase in atomic number after curium, element 96, whose half-life is four (many, many times more/much, much less) longer than that of any later element. All nuclides with an atomic number above 101 go through (when a radioactive substance breaks down) with half-lives shorter than 30 hours. No elements with atomic numbers above 82 (after lead) have stable isotopes.[92] This is because of the ever-increasing Coulomb fear and disgust of protons, so that the strong nuclear force cannot hold the center (of a cell or atom) together against unplanned (and sudden) fission for long. Calculations suggest that without other (making steady/making firm and strong) factors, elements with more than 104 protons should not exist.[93] However, (people who work to find information) in the 1960s suggested that the closed nuclear shells around 114 protons and 184 neutrons should undo this (quality that shows weakness because important things aren’t steady or strong), creating an island of (firm and steady nature/lasting nature/strength) in which nuclides could have half-lives reaching thousands or millions of years. While scientists have still not reached the island, the mere existence of the superheavy elements (including oganesson) confirms that this (making steady/making firm and strong) effect is real, and in general the known superheavy nuclides become (more and more as time goes on) longer-lived as they approach the (described a possible future event) location of the island.[94][95] Oganesson is radioactive and has a half-life that appears to be less than a millisecond. Anyway, this is still longer than some (described a possible future event) values,[96][97] this way giving further support to the idea of the island of (firm and steady nature/lasting nature/strength).[98]

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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s learn about YTTERBIUM!

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Ytterbium is a chemical element with the symbol Yb and atomic number 70. It is the fourteenth and next-to-the-last element in the lanthanide series, which is the basis of the relative (firm and steady nature/lasting nature/strength) of its +2 oxidation state. However, like the other lanthanides, its most common oxidation state is +3, as in its oxide, halides, and other compounds. In water-based solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, (able to be dissolved in something) ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. Because of its closed-shell electron setup, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides.

In 1878, the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac separated from the rare earth “erbia” another independent part, which he called “ytterbia”, for Ytterby, the village in Sweden near where he found the new part of erbium. He suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element that he called “ytterbium” (in total, four elements were named after the village, the others being yttrium, terbium, and erbium). In 1907, the new earth “lutecia” was separated from ytterbia, from which the element “lutecium” (now lutetium) was (pulled out or taken from something else) by Georges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach, and Charles James. After some discussion, Marignac’s name “ytterbium” was kept/held. A (compared to other things) total/totally/with nothing else mixed in sample of the metal was not received/got until 1953. Now, ytterbium is mainly used as a dopant of stainless steel or active laser media, and less often as a (ray of invisible energy) source.

Natural ytterbium is a mixture of seven stable isotopes, which completely are present at concentrations of 0.3 parts per million. This element is mined in China, the United States, Brazil, and India in form of the minerals monazite, euxenite, and xenotime. The ytterbium concentration is low because it is found only among many other rare-earth elements; more than that, it is among the least plentiful. Once (pulled out or taken from something else) and prepared, ytterbium is somewhat dangerous as an eye and skin irritant. The metal is a fire and explosion danger/risk.

Physical properties
Ytterbium is a soft, bendable and (able to be flattened or drawn into wire) chemical element that displays a bright silvery shine when total/totally/with nothing else mixed in. It is a rare-earth element, and it is easily (mixed with and became part of a liquid) by the strong mineral acids. It reacts slowly with cold water and it oxidizes slowly in air.[7]

Ytterbium has three give out/set asideropes labeled by the Greek letters alpha, beta and gamma; their change temperatures are aˆ’13 °C and 795 °C,[7] although the exact change temperature depends on the pressure and stress.[8] The beta give out/set asiderope (6.966 g/cm3) exists at room temperature, and it has a face-centered cubic crystal structure. The high-temperature gamma give out/set asiderope (6.57 g/cm3) has a body-centered cubic (very clear/related to things that look like little pieces of clear glass) structure.[7] The alpha give out/set asiderope (6.903 g/cm3) has a six-sided (very clear/related to things that look like little pieces of clear glass) structure and is stable at low temperatures.[9] The beta give out/set asiderope has a metallic electrical (ability to let electricity flow) at (usual/ commonly and regular/ healthy) (related to the air outside) pressure, but it becomes an (element used to make electronic circuits) when exposed to a pressure of about 16,000 atmospheres (1.6 GPa). Its electrical resistivity increases ten times upon (press or force into a smaller space)ion to 39,000 atmospheres (3.9 GPa), but then drops to about 10% of its room-temperature resistivity at about 40,000 atm (4.0 GPa).[7][10]

In contrast with the other rare-earth metals, which usually have antiferromagnetic and/or ferromagnetic properties at low temperatures, ytterbium is paramagnetic at temperatures above 1.0 kelvin.[11] However, the alpha give out/set asiderope is diamagnetic.[8] With a melting point of 824 °C and a boiling point of 1196 °C, ytterbium has the smallest liquid range of all the metals.[7]

Opposite to most other lanthanides, which have a close-packed six-sided (something made of crossed strips of wood, metal, etc.), ytterbium makes crystals/becomes clear and real in the face-centered cubic system. Ytterbium has a density of 6.973 g/cm3, which is much lower than those of the close-by lanthanides, thulium (9.32 g/cm3) and lutetium (9.841 g/cm3). Its melting and boiling points are also much lower than those of thulium and lutetium. This is due to the closed-shell electron setup of ytterbium ([Xe] 4f14 6s2), which causes only the two 6s electrons to be available for metallic (gluing or joining together of two things) (in contrast to the other lanthanides where three electrons are available) and increases ytterbium’s metallic radius.[9]

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