How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s learn about TERBIUM!

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Terbium is a chemical element with the symbol Tb and atomic number 65. It is a silvery-white, rare earth metal that is bendable, (able to be flattened or drawn into wire), and soft enough to be cut with a knife. The ninth member of the lanthanide series, terbium is a fairly electropositive metal that reacts with water, changing (and getting better) hydrogen gas. Terbium is never found in nature as a free element, but it is contained in many minerals, including cerite, gadolinite, monazite, xenotime, and euxenite.

Swedish chemist Carl Gustaf Mosander discovered terbium as a chemical element in 1843. He detected it as a (dirt, dust, etc.) in yttrium oxide, Y2O3. Yttrium and terbium, as well as erbium and ytterbium, are named after the village of Ytterby in Sweden. Terbium was not (separated far from others) in (completely/complete, with nothing else mixed in) form until the coming of ion exchange ways of doing things.

Terbium is used to dope (silvery metal/important nutrient) fluoride, (silvery metal/important nutrient) tungstate and strontium molybdate, materials that are used in solid-state devices, and as a crystal (make steady/make firm and strong)r of (devices that make electricity from hydrogen) which operate at high/higher temperatures. As a part of Terfenol-D (a mix/mixture (of metals) that expands and contracts when exposed to magnetic fields more than any other mix/mixture (of metals)), terbium is of use in mechanical pushing-pulling devices, in naval sonar systems and in sensors.

Most of the world’s terbium supply is used in green phosphors. Terbium oxide is in fluorescent lamps and television and monitor cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Terbium green phosphors are combined with divalent europium blue phosphors and trivalent europium red phosphors to provide trichromatic lighting technology, a high-(wasting very little while working or producing something) white light used for standard lighting up/education in indoor lighting.

Physical properties
Terbium is a silvery-white rare earth metal that is bendable, (able to be flattened or drawn into wire) and soft enough to be cut with a knife. It is staying steady in air compared to the earlier, more (causing reactions from other people or chemicals) lanthanides in the first half of the lanthanide series. Terbium exists in two crystal give out/set asideropes with a change temperature of 1289 °C between them. The 65 electrons of a terbium atom are arranged in the electron setup [Xe]4f96s2; (usually/ in a common and regular way), only three electrons can be removed before the nuclear charge becomes too great to allow further ionization, but in the case of terbium, the (firm and steady nature/lasting nature/strength) of the half-filled [Xe]4f7 setup allows further ionization of a fourth electron in the presence of very strong oxidizing agents such as fluorine gas.

The terbium(III) cation is brilliantly fluorescent, in a bright lemon-yellow color that is the result of a strong green emission line in combination with other lines in the orange and red. The yttrofluorite variety of the mineral fluorite owes its creamy-yellow fluorescence in part to terbium. Terbium easily oxidizes, and is therefore used in its elemental form specifically for research. Single terbium atoms have been (separated far from others) by inserting them into fullerene molecules.

Terbium has a simple ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures below 219 K. Above 219 K, it turns into a helical antiferromagnetic state in which all of the atomic moments in a particular basal plane layer are parallel, and oriented at a fixed angle to the moments of (next to) layers. This unusual antiferromagnetism changes into a (not working right/not acting right) paramagnetic state at 230 K.

Chemical properties
Terbium metal is an electropositive element and oxidizes in the presence of most acids (such as sulfuric acid), all of the halogens, and even water.

2 Tb (s) + 3 H2SO4 a†’ 2 Tb3+ + 3 SO2aˆ’
4 + 3 H2a†’
2 Tb + 3 X2 a†’ 2 TbX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I)
2 Tb (s) + 6 H2O a†’ 2 Tb(OH)3 + 3 H2a†’
Terbium also oxidizes easily in air to form a mixed terbium(III,IV) oxide:[8]

8 Tb + 7 O2 a†’ 2 Tb4O7
The most common oxidation state of terbium is +3 (trivalent), such as TbCl
3. In the solid state, tetravalent terbium is also known, in compounds such as TbO2 and TbF4. In solution, terbium usually forms trivalent (group of similar living things), but can be oxidized to the tetravalent state with ozone in highly basic water-based conditions.

The coordination and organometallic chemistry of terbium is just like other lanthanides. In water-based conditions, terbium can be coordinated by nine water molecules, which are arranged in a tricapped trigonal prismatic molecular geometry. Complexes of terbium with lower coordination number are also known, usually with (taking up a lot of space for its weight) ligands like bis(trimethyl-silylamide), which forms the three-coordinate Tb[N(SiMe3)2]3 complex.

Most coordination and organometallic complexes contain terbium in the trivalent oxidation state. Divalent (Tb2+) complexes are also known, usually with (taking up a lot of space for its weight) cyclopentadienyl-type ligands. A few coordination compounds containing terbium in its tetravalent state are also known.

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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s learn about XENON!

H7 Ring Xenon 130 Headlamp Bulbs - Devon 4x4 - DA5024-130-BRP

Xenon is a chemical element with the symbol Xe and atomic number 54. It is a colorless, dense, odorless noble gas found in Earth’s atmosphere in trace amounts. Although generally unreactive, xenon can undergo a few chemical reactions such as the formation of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, the first noble gas compound to be synthesized.

Xenon is used in flash lamps and arc lamps, and as a general anesthetic. The first excimer laser design used a xenon dimer molecule (Xe2) as the lasing medium, and the earliest laser designs used xenon flash lamps as pumps. Xenon is used to search for hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles[20] and as the propellant for ion thrusters in spacecraft.

Naturally occurring xenon consists of seven stable isotopes and two long-lived radioactive isotopes. More than 40 unstable xenon isotopes undergo radioactive decay, and the isotope ratios of xenon are an important tool for studying the early history of the Solar System. Radioactive xenon-135 is produced by beta decay from iodine-135 (a product of nuclear fission), and is the most significant (and unwanted) neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.

Xenon was discovered in England by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in September 1898, shortly after their discovery of the elements krypton and neon. They found xenon in the residue left over from evaporating components of liquid air. Ramsay suggested the name xenon for this gas from the Greek word ξένον xénon, neuter singular form of ξένος xénos, meaning ‘foreign(er)’, ‘strange(r)’, or ‘guest’. In 1902, Ramsay estimated the proportion of xenon in the Earth’s atmosphere to be one part in 20 million.

During the 1930s, American engineer Harold Edgerton began exploring strobe light technology for high speed photography. This led him to the invention of the xenon flash lamp in which light is generated by passing brief electric current through a tube filled with xenon gas. In 1934, Edgerton was able to generate flashes as brief as one microsecond with this method.

In 1939, American physician Albert R. Behnke Jr. began exploring the causes of “drunkenness” in deep-sea divers. He tested the effects of varying the breathing mixtures on his subjects, and discovered that this caused the divers to perceive a change in depth. From his results, he deduced that xenon gas could serve as an anesthetic. Although Russian toxicologist Nikolay V. Lazarev apparently studied xenon anesthesia in 1941, the first published report confirming xenon anesthesia was in 1946 by American medical researcher John H. Lawrence, who experimented on mice. Xenon was first used as a surgical anesthetic in 1951 by American anesthesiologist Stuart C. Cullen, who successfully used it with two patients.

Xenon and the other noble gases were for a long time considered to be completely chemically inert and not able to form compounds. However, while teaching at the University of British Columbia, Neil Bartlett discovered that the gas platinum hexafluoride (PtF6) was a powerful oxidizing agent that could oxidize oxygen gas (O2) to form dioxygenyl hexafluoroplatinate (O+2[PtF 6]−). Since O2(1165 kJ/mol) and xenon (1170 kJ/mol) have almost the same first ionization potential, Bartlett realized that platinum hexafluoride might also be able to oxidize xenon. On March 23, 1962, he mixed the two gases and produced the first known compound of a noble gas, xenon hexafluoroplatinate.

Bartlett thought its composition to be Xe+[PtF6]−, but later work revealed that it was probably a mixture of various xenon-containing salts. Since then, many other xenon compounds have been discovered, in addition to some compounds of the noble gases argon, krypton, and radon, including argon fluorohydride (HArF), krypton difluoride (KrF2), and radon fluoride. By 1971, more than 80 xenon compounds were known.

In November 1989, IBM scientists demonstrated a technology capable of manipulating individual atoms. The program, called IBM in atoms, used a scanning tunneling microscope to arrange 35 individual xenon atoms on a substrate of chilled crystal of nickel to spell out the three letter company initialism. It was the first time atoms had been precisely positioned on a flat surface.

Xenon has atomic number 54; that is, its nucleus contains 54 protons. At standard temperature and pressure, pure xenon gas has a density of 5.761 kg/m3, about 4.5 times the density of the Earth’s atmosphere at sea level, 1.217 kg/m3. As a liquid, xenon has a density of up to 3.100 g/mL, with the density maximum occurring at the triple point. Liquid xenon has a high polarizability due to its large atomic volume, and thus is an excellent solvent. It can dissolve hydrocarbons, biological molecules, and even water. Under the same conditions, the density of solid xenon, 3.640 g/cm3, is greater than the average density of granite, 2.75 g/cm3. Under gigapascals of pressure, xenon forms a metallic phase.

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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s learn about TELLURIUM!

Native Tellurium

Tellurium is a chemical element with the symbol Te and atomic number 52. It is a brittle, mildly toxic, rare, silver-white metalloid. Tellurium is chemically related to selenium and sulfur, all three of which are chalcogens. It is occasionally found in native form as elemental crystals. Tellurium is far more common in the Universe as a whole than on Earth. Its extreme rarity in the Earth’s crust, comparable to that of platinum, is due partly to its formation of a volatile hydride that caused tellurium to be lost to space as a gas during the hot nebular formation of Earth, and partly to tellurium’s low affinity for oxygen, which causes it to bind preferentially to other chalcophiles in dense minerals that sink into the core.

Tellurium-bearing compounds were first discovered in 1782 in a gold mine in Kleinschlatten, Transylvania (now Zlatna, Romania) by Austrian mineralogist Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein, although it was Martin Heinrich Klaproth who named the new element in 1798 after the Latin word for “earth”, tellus. Gold telluride minerals are the most notable natural gold compounds. However, they are not a commercially significant source of tellurium itself, which is normally extracted as a by-product of copper and lead production.

Commercially, the primary use of tellurium is copper (tellurium copper) and steel alloys, where it improves machinability. Applications in CdTe solar panels and cadmium telluride semiconductors also consume a considerable portion of tellurium production. Tellurium is considered a technology-critical element.

Tellurium has no biological function, although fungi can use it in place of sulfur and selenium in amino acids such as tellurocysteine and telluromethionine. In humans, tellurium is partly metabolized into dimethyl telluride, (CH3)2Te, a gas with a garlic-like odor exhaled in the breath of victims of tellurium exposure or poisoning.

Tellurium has two allotropes, crystalline and amorphous. When crystalline, tellurium is silvery-white with a metallic luster. It is a brittle and easily pulverized metalloid. Amorphous tellurium is a black-brown powder prepared by precipitating it from a solution of tellurous acid or telluric acid (Te(OH)6). Tellurium is a semiconductor that shows a greater electrical conductivity in certain directions depending on atomic alignment; the conductivity increases slightly when exposed to light (photoconductivity). When molten, tellurium is corrosive to copper, iron, and stainless steel. Of the chalcogens (oxygen-family elements), tellurium has the highest melting and boiling points, at 722.66 K (841.12 °F) and 1,261 K (1,810 °F), respectively.

Tellurium adopts a polymeric structure consisting of zig-zag chains of Te atoms. This gray material resists oxidation by air and is not volatile.

Naturally occurring tellurium has eight isotopes. Six of those isotopes, 120Te, 122Te, 123Te, 124Te, 125Te, and 126Te, are stable. The other two, 128Te and 130Te, have been found to be slightly radioactive, with extremely long half-lives, including 2.2 × 1024 years for 128Te. This is the longest known half-life among all radionuclides and is about 160 trillion (1012) times the age of the known universe. Stable isotopes comprise only 33.2% of naturally occurring tellurium.

A further 31 artificial radioisotopes of tellurium are known, with atomic masses ranging from 104 to 142 and with half-lives of 19 days or less. Also, 17 nuclear isomers are known, with half-lives up to 154 days. With the exception of beryllium-8 and beta-delayed alpha emission branches in some lighter nuclides, tellurium (104Te to 109Te) is the lightest element with isotopes known to undergo alpha decay.

The atomic mass of tellurium (127.60 g·mol−1) exceeds that of iodine (126.90 g·mol−1), the next element in the periodic table.

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