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Let’s Learn About BERYLLIUM!

Let's Learn About BERYLLIUM!

Beryllium is a silvery-white metal. It is relatively soft and has a low density.
Named after beryllos, the Greek name for the mineral beryl, the element was originally known as glucinium — from Greek glykys, meaning “sweet” — to reflect its characteristic taste. But the chemists who discovered this unique property of beryllium also found that it is in fact highly toxic and should therefore never be tasted,
It is used in alloys with copper or nickel to make gyroscopes, springs, electrical contacts, spot-welding electrodes and non-sparking tools. Mixing beryllium with these metals increases their electrical and thermal conductivity.

Atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus): 4
Atomic symbol (on the Periodic Table of the Elements): Be
Atomic weight (average mass of the atom): 9.012182
Density: 1.85 grams per cubic centimeter
Phase at room temperature: Solid
Melting point: 2,348.6 degrees Fahrenheit (1,287 degrees Celsius)
Boiling point: 4,479.8 F (2,471 C)
Number of isotopes (atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons): 12, including one stable isotope.
Most common isotopes: 9Be (Natural abundance: 100 percent)

Let's Learn About BERYLLIUM!

Beryllium is used in gears and cogs particularly in the aviation industry.  Other beryllium alloys are used as structural materials for high-speed aircraft, missiles, spacecraft and communication satellites. It is relatively transparent to X-rays so ultra-thin beryllium foil is finding use in X-ray lithography. It is also used in nuclear reactors as a reflector or moderator of neutrons.

The oxide has a very high melting point making it useful in nuclear work as well as having ceramic applications.

Beryllium and its compounds are toxic and carcinogenic. If beryllium dust or fumes are inhaled, it can lead to an incurable inflammation of the lungs called berylliosis.

Let's Learn About BERYLLIUM!

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Let’s Learn About TUNGSTEN!

Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with the symbol W and atomic number 74. Tungsten is a rare metal found naturally on Earth almost only as compounds with other elements. It was identified as a new element in 1781 and first (separated far from others) as a metal in 1783. Its important ores include tungsten, scheelite, and wolframite, the last lending the element its alternate name.

The free element is amazing and interesting for its strength and health, especially the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the elements discovered, melting at 3,422 °C (6,192 °F; 3,695 K) (carbon amazings rather than melts at (related to the air outside) pressure). It also has the highest boiling point, at 5,930 °C (10,710 °F; 6,200 K).[10] Its density is 19.25 grams per cubic centimetre, similar with that of uranium and gold, and much higher (about 1.7 times) than that of lead. Polycrystalline tungsten is a naturally easily broken and hard material (under standard conditions, when uncombined), making it very hard to work. However, total/totally/with nothing else mixed in single-(very clear/related to things that look like little pieces of clear glass) tungsten is more (able to be flattened or drawn into wire) and can be cut with a hard-steel hacksaw.

Californium is one of the few transuranium elements that have practical uses. Most of these applications use (for selfish reasons) property of certain isotopes of californium to give off neutrons. For example, californium can be used to help start up nuclear reactors, and it is employed as a source of neutrons when studying materials using neutron diffraction and neutron spectroscopy. Californium can also be used in nuclear (creation/combination) of higher mass elements; oganesson (element 118) was made/created by (overloading and overwhelming with bullets, questions, requests, etc) californium-249 atoms with (silvery metal/important nutrient)-48 ions. Users of californium must take into account (related to X-rays)al concerns and the element’s ability to disrupt the (creation and construction/ group of objects) of red blood cells by bioaccumulating in extremely skinny/skeleton-related tissue.

Californium was first made/created at the University of California Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, by the physics (people who work to find information) Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg on or about February 9, 1950. It was the sixth transuranium element to be discovered; the team announced its discovery on March 17, 1950.

Tungsten happens in many mixtures (of metals), which have many uses, including glowing light bulb thin threads, X-ray tubes, electrodes in gas tungsten arc welding, superalloys, and radiation shielding. Tungsten’s hardness and high density make it good for military uses in penetrating (things thrown or fired at high speeds). Tungsten compounds are often used as industrial helping forces.

Tungsten is the only metal in the third change (from one thing to another) series that is known to happen in biomolecules, being found in a few (group of similar living things) of bacteria and archaea. However, tungsten interferes with molybdenum and copper (chemically processing and using food) and is somewhat poisonous to most forms of animal life.

In 1781, Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered that a new acid, tungstic acid, could be made from scheelite (at the time tungsten). Scheele and Torbern Bergman suggested that it might be possible to get a new metal by reducing this acid. In 1783, Jose and Fausto Elhuyar found an acid made from wolframite that was identical to tungstic acid. Later that year, at the Royal Basque (community of people/all good people in the world) in the town of Bergara, Spain, the brothers succeeded in (separating far from others) tungsten by reduction of this acid with charcoal, and they are credited with the discovery of the element (they called it “wolfram” or “volfram”).

The (related to a plan to reach a goal) value of tungsten came to (see/hear/become aware of) in the early 20th century. British people in charge acted in 1912 to free the Carrock mine from the German owned Cumbrian Mining Company and, during World War I, restrict German access in other places. In World War II, tungsten played a more a big role in background political dealings. Portugal, as the main (related to Europe) source of the element, was put under pressure from both sides, because of its deposits of wolframite ore at Panasqueira. Tungsten’s desirable properties such as resistance to high temperatures, its hardness and density, and its strengthening of mixtures (of metals) made it an important raw material for the arms industry, both as a voter/part of weapons and equipment and employed in production itself, e.g., in tungsten carbide cutting tools for machining steel. Now tungsten is used in many more applications such as aircraft & motorsport (weight that steadies a ship, aircraft, etc.) weights, darts, anti-vibration tooling, and sporting equipment.

The name “tungsten” (which means “heavy stone” in Swedish) is used in English, French, and many other languages as the name of the element, but not in the Nordic countries. “Tungsten” was the old Swedish name for the mineral scheelite. “Wolfram” (or “volfram”) is used in most (related to Europe) (especially Germanic, Spanish and Slavic) languages and is taken from the mineral wolframite, which is the origin of the chemical symbol W. The name “wolframite” is taken from German “wolf rahm” (“wolf soot” or “wolf cream”), the name given to tungsten by Johan Gottschalk Wallerius in 1747. This, in turn, comes from Latin “lupi spuma”, the name Georg Agricola used for the element in 1546, which translates into English as “wolf’s froth” and is a reference to the large amounts of tin used/ate/drank/destroyed by the mineral during its extraction.

The world’s reserves of tungsten are 3,200,000 tonnes; they are mostly located in China (1,800,000 t), Canada (290,000 t),[48] Russia (160,000 t), Vietnam (95,000 t) and Bolivia. As of 2017, China, Vietnam and Russia are the leading suppliers with 79,000, 7,200 and 3,100 tonnes, (match up each pair of items in order). Canada had stopped production in late 2015 due to the closure of its only tungsten mine. Meanwhile, Vietnam had increased (a lot) its output in the 2010s, because of the major optimization of its domestic making better/making more pure operations, and ran faster than Russia and Bolivia.

China remains the world’s leader not only in production, but also in export and consumption of tungsten products. Tungsten production is slowly increasing outside China because of the rising demand. Meanwhile, its supply by China is strictly controlled by the Chinese Government, which fights illegal mining and too much/too many pollution starting from mining and making better/making more pure processes.

Tungsten is carefully thought about/believed to be a conflict mineral due to the (dishonest and wrong) mining practices watched/followed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.There is a large deposit of tungsten ore on the edge of Dartmoor in the United Kingdom, which was taken advantage of during World War I and World War II as the Hemerdon Mine. Following increases in tungsten prices, this mine was reactivated in 2014,[53] but stopped activities in 2018.

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Let’s Learn About CALIFORNIUM!

Californium is a radioactive chemical element with the symbol Cf and atomic number 98. The element was first created in 1950 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (then the University of California Radiation Laboratory), by (overloading and overwhelming with bullets, questions, requests, etc) curium with alpha particles (helium-4 ions). It is an actinide element, the sixth transuranium element to be made/created, and has the second-highest atomic mass of all the elements that have been produced in amounts large enough to see with the (without receiving help) eye (after einsteinium). The element was named after the university and the U.S. state of California.

Two (very clear/related to things that look like little pieces of clear glass) forms exist for californium under (usual/ commonly and regular/ healthy) pressure: one above and one below 900 °C (1,650 °F). A third form exists at high pressure. Californium slowly discolors and ruins in air at room temperature. Compounds of californium are ruled-over by the +3 oxidation state. The most stable of californium’s twenty known isotopes is californium-251, which has a half-life of 898 years. This short half-life means the element is not found in significant amounts in the Earth’s crust.[a] Californium-252, with a half-life of about 2.645 years, is the most common isotope used and is produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States and the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors in Russia.

Californium is one of the few transuranium elements that have practical uses. Most of these applications use (for selfish reasons) property of certain isotopes of californium to give off neutrons. For example, californium can be used to help start up nuclear reactors, and it is employed as a source of neutrons when studying materials using neutron diffraction and neutron spectroscopy. Californium can also be used in nuclear (creation/combination) of higher mass elements; oganesson (element 118) was made/created by (overloading and overwhelming with bullets, questions, requests, etc) californium-249 atoms with (silvery metal/important nutrient)-48 ions. Users of californium must take into account (related to X-rays)al concerns and the element’s ability to disrupt the (creation and construction/ group of objects) of red blood cells by bioaccumulating in extremely skinny/skeleton-related tissue.

Californium was first made/created at the University of California Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, by the physics (people who work to find information) Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg on or about February 9, 1950. It was the sixth transuranium element to be discovered; the team announced its discovery on March 17, 1950.

To identify and separate out the element, ion exchange and adsorsion methods were done/tried. Only about 5,000 atoms of californium were produced in this experiment, and these atoms had a half-life of 44 minutes.

The discoverers named the new element after the university and the state. This was a break from the convention used for elements 95 to 97, which drew inspiration from how the elements directly above them in the list of all elements were named. However, the element directly above element 98 in the list of all elements, dysprosium, has a name that simply means “hard to get at” so the (people who work to find information) decided to set aside the informal (common way of putting a name on something). They added that “the best we can do is to point out [that] … searchers a century ago found it very hard to get to California.”

Weighable amounts of californium were first produced by the exposure to radiation of plutonium targets at the Materials Testing Reactor at the National Reactor Testing Station in eastern Idaho; and these findings were reported in 1954. The high unplanned (and sudden) fission rate of californium-252 was watched/followed in these samples. The first experiment with californium in (focused one’s effort/increased/mainly studied) form happened in 1958. The isotopes californium-249 to californium-252 were (separated far from others) that same year from a sample of plutonium-239 that had been exposed to radiation with neutrons in a nuclear reactor for five years. Two years later, in 1960, Burris Cunningham and James Wallman of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory of the University of California created the first californium compounds–californium trichloride, californium oxychloride, and californium oxide–by treating californium with steam and hydrochloric acid.

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, started producing small batches of californium in the 1960s. By 1995, the HFIR in name produced 500 milligrams (0.018 oz) of californium every year. Plutonium supplied by the United Kingdom to the United States under the 1958 US-UK Back and forth/equal between people Defence Agreement was used for californium production.

The Atomic Energy Commission sold californium-252 to industrial and (related to school and learning) customers in the early 1970s for $10 per microgram[26] and an average of 150 mg (0.0053 oz) of californium-252 were shipped each year from 1970 to 1990. Californium metal was first prepared in 1974 by Haire and Baybarz who reduced californium(III) oxide with lanthanum metal to get microgram amounts of sub-micrometer thick films.

Traces of californium can be found near facilities that use the element in mineral prospecting and in medical treatments. The element is fairly (unable to be dissolved in something) in water, but it sticks well to ordinary soil; and concentrations of it in the soil can be 500 times higher than in the water surrounding the soil particles.

Traces of californium can be found near facilities that use the element in mineral prospecting and in medical treatments. The element is fairly (unable to be dissolved in something) in water, but it sticks well to ordinary soil; and concentrations of it in the soil can be 500 times higher than in the water surrounding the soil particles.

Results/argument from (related to the air outside) nuclear testing before 1980 added/gave a small amount of californium to the health of the Earth/the surrounding conditions. Californium isotopes with mass numbers 249, 252, 253, and 254 have been watched/followed in the radioactive dust collected from the air after a nuclear explosion. Californium is not a major radionuclide at United States Department of Energy (something given to future people) places/locations since it was not produced in large amounts.

Californium was once believed to be produced in supernovas, as their (rotted, inferior, or ruined state) matches the 60-day half-life of 254Cf. However, later studies did not (show or prove) any californium spectra, and supernova light curves are now thought to follow the (rotted, inferior, or ruined state) of nickel-56.

The transuranic elements from (element) to fermium, including californium, happened naturally in the natural nuclear fission reactor at Oklo, but no longer do so.

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