Gold mine oxygen generator - Foxolution Systems Engineering CC

The Need For On-Site Gas Production in Mining

 

The most important industrial gases needed for metals processing in the mining industry are Oxygen, Nitrogen and Hydrogen.

 

Oxygen is needed for the following processes:

  • Gold leaching
  • Oxy-fuel for furnaces
  • Refining
  • Furnace lancing
  • Water treatment

 

Hydrogen is used for:

  • Welding
  • Cutting metals
  • Platinum refining
  • Nickel production
  • Heat treating application
  • Annealing
  • Furnace brazing

 

Nitrogen’s uses are:

  • Cooling
  • Stirring
  • Protection from oxidation
  • Interting vessels and equipment
  • Eliminating the formation of explosive mixtures
  • Purging gas
  • Inflating earthmoving machinery tyres

 

Nitrogen for tyre filling

Using nitrogen to inflate the tyres of large machinery is a growing trend in the mining industry. Rugged terrain takes its toll on tyres and as mining vehicles are essential to the extraction process it is vital that they are kept functional. These vehicles operate in environments of temperature extremes, and it is because of this that nitrogen is perfect for tyre filling. The tyres stay inflated for longer and are extremely resistant to changes in temperature, operating well in hot climates as well as at icy cold high altitudes. Being an inert gas, nitrogen doesn’t react with other materials. Another thing that adds to the safety of using nitrogen is that it is corrosion resistant.

 

Oxygen for ventilation

There are various gases that penetrate mining pits – hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. This can cause the atmosphere in the mine to be unsafe for the workers. Sufficient oxygen needs to be supplied to the miners. Several m3 of oxygen per miner needs to be pumped into the mines every hour. This supply needs to be uninterrupted to ensure the safety of the miners. Being able to generate oxygen on-site is crucial for this to happen.

 

Oxygen and gold

Oxygen plays a vital part in the process of gold extraction. Where gold is extracted on a large scale, mines generally use the cyanide leaching process. Gold-bearing rock is ground up and a sodium cyanide solution is seeped through it. This solution needs to be enriched with oxygen. The chemical reaction that results causes the gold complexes to rise. These are then washed out of the rock and sent on for further processing.

 

Hydrogen’s new role in mining

Hydrogen is going to play an increasingly important role in mining as the industry looks to decarbonize more and more. Green hydrogen has many uses – storing renewable energy so that electricity can be generated, powering equipment and vehicles and as a reductant in various mining processes. The Raglan mine in Canada has produced its own electricity since 2015. It is generated by a wind turbine generator (artic rated) that is connected to a hydrogen energy storage unit. This is a huge reduction in carbon emission due to the reduction in the use of diesel to generate power.

 

The Mogalakwena mine in South Africa trialled the use of the world’s biggest hydrogen powered mine haul vehicle in 2019.  The truck weighed in at 290 tons. Another platinum mine using hydrogen in their process is the Impala mine, also in South Africa. They are using hydrogen fuel cells for their forklifts and refuelling stations.

 

Green Steel

Steelmaking uses blast furnaces with are powered by coke (made from coal). Coke is a good reducing agent meaning it removes oxygen from the iron ore. Hydrogen is also an excellent reducing agent. Hydrogen is now being used as a partial replacement of coke is some steel operations.

 

Foxolution

For all of the above, the most cost-effective way of running a mining facility is to be able to produce the gases you need on-site. Foxolution has the answer for you! Contact us to find out more about our nitrogen and oxygen generators.

Oxygen

What are the most common gas types?

 

Argon

Argon makes up approximately 1% of the Earth’s atmosphere. It is the third noble gas. Argon is chemically inert and is colourless and odourless in both its liquid and gas forms. Argon is used when an inert atmosphere is required. This is needed in the production of some reactive elements including titanium. Argon is used by welders to protect the area of welding. It is also used in incandescent light bulbs.

 

Oxygen

Oxygen is colourless, tasteless and odourless. It is a gas and is vital to all living organisms. Animals take up oxygen and convert it to carbon dioxide. Plants use this carbon dioxide and then produce oxygen which is returned to the atmosphere.

21% of our atmosphere is made up of oxygen.

 

Helium

Helium is an inert gas. It is the second lightest element and has no colour, smell or taste. Helium becomes liquid at −268.9 °C. In order for helium to become a solid pressure of 25 atmospheres is required as well as a temperature of -272 °C.

Helium is used for welding various metals, to pressurize fuel tanks for rocket propulsion.  It is used as a lifting gas for balloons carrying meteorological equipment.

 

Hydrogen

This is the lightest element. Hydrogen is a gas – colourless, odourless, tasteless and very combustible. It is non-toxic. Hydrogen makes up approximately 75% of all matter in the universe.

Hydrogen is used to make ammonia for fertilisers as well as cyclohexane and methanol used in the production of plastics and pharmaceutical products.

 

Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a gas that has no taste, smell or colour.  It is a gas that is found in all living matter. Nitrogen is the most common element in the earth’s atmosphere.

Nitrogen is used in fertilisers, dyes, explosives, nylon, and nitric acid.  Nitrogen needs to be reacted with hydrogen in order to produce ammonia.

 

If people are exposed to high concentrations of nitrogen, it is harmful to health.

Because it displaces oxygen in an enclosed space, it can build up to dangerous levels.

Approximately 78% of our atmosphere is made up of nitrogen. Nitrogen is essential for all life.

 

Acetylene

Acetylene is a hydrocarbon and is the simplest alkyne. It is a colourless gas with a pleasant odour.

Acetylene is used as a fuel and a chemical building block. It is commonly handled as a solution due to the fact that in its pure form it is unstable.

One major use of acetylene is in the fabrication industry.  It is used for welding, cutting, brazing, hardening and texturing.

Acetylene is inflammable but it has the potential to explode in both liquid and solid form when under pressure of approximately 15 pounds per square inch.

 

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide is very important as part of the earth’s air. It is non-flammable and colourless.  At normal pressure and temperature, it is a gas.

Carbon dioxide is used in fire extinguishers and for inflating life rafts and jackets.  It is used as a refrigerant and for blasting coal.  It is helpful in promoting plant growth in greenhouses.

 

Air

The atmosphere of earth is known as air. It is the layer of gases that surround the planet.  The atmosphere protects life on earth – it creates pressure which allows for liquid water to exist on the surface of the earth. It absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun and allows the earth surface to be warm.  It also reduces the temperature extremes of day and night. Air is mainly made up of nitrogen and oxygen.

 

How Is Wastewater Treated?

How Is Wastewater Treated?

 

We are very fortunate to live in a time when we have so many products that make our lives easier and more comfortable. However, it does come at a price. One of the byproducts is wastewater. This can be in the form of runoff on wet roads, shower water, water from your washing machine or sewerage. Wastewater is not fit for human consumption.

 

There are various methods used to treat wastewater:

Physical Wastewater Treatment

Methods such as screening, sedimentation and skimming are used to remove solid waste from the water.  There are no chemicals used in this process.

  • Sedimentation is when the insoluble particles in the water are suspended. These particles then settle to the bottom and can be separated from the water.
  • Aeration is a method where air is circulated through the water. This provides the water with a lot of oxygen. This oxygen is used by the bacteria to cause biodegradation. The bacteria break down the organic matter to form carbon dioxide and water. (Foxolution – wastewater treatment)
  • Filtration uses special filters to filter out the contaminants. A sand filter is the most common filter.

 

Biological Wastewater Treatment

Organic matter like soaps, faeces, oil and food particles can be broken down using biological methods.

Organic matter is metabolized by microorganisms.

  • An aerobic process using oxygen allows bacteria to decompose the organic matter. It is converted into carbon dioxide. (Foxolution – wastewater treatment)
  • An anaerobic process uses fermentation to break down waste matter
  • Composting is a kind of aerobic process. Wastewater is mixed with sawdust. The solids are then removed however dissolved nitrogen and phosphorous may remain.

 

Chemical Wastewater Treatment

This process involves using chemicals is the wastewater. Chlorine is usually used to kill bacteria. Ozone is also used to purify the water. When an acid or base is added to bring the pH of the water to 7, this is called neutralization.

 

Sludge Wastewater Treatment

This process separates solids and liquids where the least residual moisture is needed in the solid phase and the lowest solid particle residues are needed in the separated liquid phase. A centrifuge is required for removing the solids from the water.

 

Municipal Wastewater Treatment

 

Most of our wastewater is directed to a sewage treatment plant for cleaning. Industrial wastewater is sometimes taken to a separate industrial wastewater treatment plant.

There are 3 treatment processes:

Primary Treatment

In the primary phase, wastewater is temporarily stored in settling tanks where the heavier solid matter sinks to the bottom of the tanks and the lighter solids float to the top.

These solids are then held back while the rest of the water is moved onto the second phase of treatment.

The settling tanks usually have mechanical scrapers that continuously drive the sludge at the bottom of the tank to a hopper.  The hopper then pumps it to sludge treatment facilities.

 

Secondary Treatment

This works on a deeper level that the first process.  It is designed to degrade the biological content of the waste using various aerobic biological processes. Once this process is complete the water is safer to be released into the environment. There are three ways this can be done.

  • Biofiltration – Various types of filters are used to remove sediment from the wastewater.
  • Aeration – The process uses oxygen. The water is saturated with oxygen and the process can take up to 30 hours.
  • Oxidation – Oxidation ponds use natural bodies of waters – dams, lagoons – allowing wastewater to run through them for a certain period of time before being retained for a couple of weeks.

 

Tertiary Treatment

The process is aimed at raising the quality of the water so that it can be used again in domestic and industrial situations. This could also involve the removal of pathogens which makes the water safe for drinking.

 

 

Oxygen Cleaning

What Is Oxygen Cleaning?

 

Contaminants within a system that uses oxygen can pose serious risks. If dirty industrial equipment is used in an oxygen rich environment, fire, or explosion, could result. When equipment is used for medical purposes, oxygen cleaning removes contaminants that can cause physical harm.

 

Fire

There are three things that fire needs. One of them is oxygen. Where there is oxygen, a source of heat and a fuel, there can be a fire or even an explosion.

Many industries use oxygen – mining, healthcare, chemical processing. Equipment needs to be free of contaminants as these could serve as a fuel. Various processes can then create a heat source which could lead to fire.

Potential heat sources are:

  • Friction from metals or other materials sliding against each other
  • Static electricity
  • Impact
  • Resonance or vibration
  • Compression of a liquid

 

Autoignition

Autoignition occurs when a fuel source spontaneously ignites due to the introduction of heat. Heat can be produced by a sudden compression of gas (or liquid). If this occurs in an oxygen rich environment, it will cause an explosion.

 

Contaminants

What contaminants need to be removed? Anything that can cause combustion or autoignition. There are 3 types of contaminants:

 

Organic

  • Volatile Organic Compounds – These compounds have a high vapour pressure and low water solubility.
  • Greases / Oils – Hydrocarbon based oils and grease

 

Inorganic

  • Nitrates – nitrogen-based compounds
  • Phosphates – often used in combination with other elements
  • Detergents (water-based) and cutting oils (coolant, lubricants)
  • Solvents / Acids

 

Particulate

  • Lint and fibres
  • Dust
  • Welding slag – this is vitreous material that is produced as a byproduct during some welding processes

 

Stay safe in your industrial working environment by being scrupulous in your cleaning methods.

 

 

 

The Most Common Gas Types

What are the most common gas types?

 

Argon

Argon makes up approximately 1% of the Earth’s atmosphere. It is the third noble gas. Argon is chemically inert and is colourless and odourless in both its liquid and gas forms. Argon is used when an inert atmosphere is required. This is needed in the production of some reactive elements including titanium. Argon is used by welders to protect the area of welding. It is also used in incandescent light bulbs.

 

Oxygen

Oxygen is colourless, tasteless and odourless. It is a gas and is vital to all living organisms. Animals take up oxygen and convert it to carbon dioxide. Plants use this carbon dioxide and then produce oxygen which is returned to the atmosphere.

21% of our atmosphere is made up of oxygen.

 

Helium

Helium is an inert gas. It is the second lightest element and has no colour, smell or taste. Helium becomes liquid at −268.9 °C. In order for helium to become a solid pressure of 25 atmospheres is required as well as a temperature of -272 °C.

Helium is used for welding various metals, to pressurize fuel tanks for rocket propulsion.  It is used as a lifting gas for balloons carrying meteorological equipment.

 

Hydrogen

This is the lightest element. Hydrogen is a gas – colourless, odourless, tasteless and very combustible. It is non-toxic. Hydrogen makes up approximately 75% of all matter in the universe.

Hydrogen is used to make ammonia for fertilisers as well as cyclohexane and methanol used in the production of plastics and pharmaceutical products.

 

Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a gas that has no taste, smell or colour.  It is a gas that is found in all living matter. Nitrogen is the most common element in the earth’s atmosphere.

Nitrogen is used in fertilisers, dyes, explosives, nylon, and nitric acid.  Nitrogen needs to be reacted with hydrogen in order to produce ammonia.

 

If people are exposed to high concentrations of nitrogen, it is harmful to health.

Because it displaces oxygen in an enclosed space, it can build up to dangerous levels.

Approximately 78% of our atmosphere is made up of nitrogen. Nitrogen is essential for all life.

 

Acetylene

Acetylene is a hydrocarbon and is the simplest alkyne. It is a colourless gas with a pleasant odour.

Acetylene is used as a fuel and a chemical building block. It is commonly handled as a solution due to the fact that in its pure form it is unstable.

One major use of acetylene is in the fabrication industry.  It is used for welding, cutting, brazing, hardening and texturing.

Acetylene is inflammable but it has the potential to explode in both liquid and solid form when under pressure of approximately 15 pounds per square inch.

 

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide is very important as part of the earth’s air. It is non-flammable and colourless.  At normal pressure and temperature, it is a gas.

Carbon dioxide is used in fire extinguishers and for inflating life rafts and jackets.  It is used as a refrigerant and for blasting coal.  It is helpful in promoting plant growth in greenhouses.

 

Air

The atmosphere of earth is known as air. It is the layer of gases that surround the planet.  The atmosphere protects life on earth – it creates pressure which allows for liquid water to exist on the surface of the earth. It absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun and allows the earth surface to be warm.  It also reduces the temperature extremes of day and night. Air is mainly made up of nitrogen and oxygen.

 

Oxygen in Gold Mining

Why is oxygen needed in gold mining? Mines use oxygen in a process called cyanide leaching. This process is used to extract gold from the ore. It uses pressure oxidation and cyanidation. Using oxygen increases recovery of gold and reduces the costs created by cyanide as well as reducing waste.

Increasing Gold Recovery
Using more dissolved oxygen in slurry intensifies the cyanidation process. Recovery rates can be expected to increase by a full percentage (at least) when the levels of dissolved oxygen are increased.

Improved Silver Recovery
As with gold recovery, so too can silver recovery be improved by increasing the levels of dissolved oxygen in the ore bearing slurry.

Lower Cyanide Costs
The process of cyanidation is dependent on the reaction of gold, cyanide, water and oxygen in the mined slurry. More dissolved oxygen means less cyanide needed in this process and thus cyanide costs are reduced significantly.

Lower Waste Treatment Costs
Some of the generated oxygen can be used as an oxidizing agent in the treatment of mining wastewater. It can be passed through an ozone generator and then injected straight into the wastewater stream. Also, by decreasing the use of cyanide, there is less to remove from the wastewater.

Foxolution
“Our Oxygen Generating Systems can be customized and tailored for your mining application. Skid-mounted or even fully containerized systems have been designed & developed for easy transportation, placement and maintenance on-site. Using a process of Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA), to separate oxygen directly from the air, our oxygen generators are the ideal “on-site” solution to the mining industries needs and requirements.” www.foxolution.co.za

How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s learn about LUTETIUM!

 

Rare Earth Lutetium Metal Lu

 

 

Lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry air, but not in moist air. Lutetium is the last element in the lanthanide series, and it is traditionally counted among the rare earths. Lutetium is generally considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals by those who study the matter, although there has been some dispute on this point.

Lutetium was independently discovered in 1907 by French scientist Georges Urbain, Austrian mineralogist Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach, and American chemist Charles James. All of these researchers found lutetium as an impurity in the mineral ytterbia, which was previously thought to consist entirely of ytterbium. The dispute on the priority of the discovery occurred shortly after, with Urbain and Welsbach accusing each other of publishing results influenced by the published research of the other; the naming honor went to Urbain, as he had published his results earlier. He chose the name lutecium for the new element, but in 1949 the spelling was changed to lutetium. In 1909, the priority was finally granted to Urbain and his names were adopted as official ones; however, the name cassiopeium (or later cassiopium) for element 71 proposed by Welsbach was used by many German scientists until the 1950s.

Lutetium is not a particularly abundant element, although it is significantly more common than silver in the earth’s crust. It has few specific uses. Lutetium-176 is a relatively abundant (2.5%) radioactive isotope with a half-life of about 38 billion years, used to determine the age of minerals and meteorites. Lutetium usually occurs in association with the element yttrium and is sometimes used in metal alloys and as a catalyst in various chemical reactions. 177Lu-DOTA-TATE is used for radionuclide therapy (see Nuclear medicine) on neuroendocrine tumours. Lutetium has the highest Brinell hardness of any lanthanide, at 890–1300 MPa.

Because of production difficulty and high price, lutetium has very few commercial uses, especially since it is rarer than most of the other lanthanides but is chemically not very different. However, stable lutetium can be used as catalysts in petroleum cracking in refineries and can also be used in alkylation, hydrogenation, and polymerization applications.

Lutetium aluminium garnet (Al5Lu3O12) has been proposed for use as a lens material in high refractive index immersion lithography. Additionally, a tiny amount of lutetium is added as a dopant to gadolinium gallium garnet, which is used in magnetic bubble memory devices. Cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate is currently the preferred compound for detectors in positron emission tomography (PET). Lutetium aluminium garnet (LuAG) is used as a phosphor in light-emitting diode light bulbs.

Aside from stable lutetium, its radioactive isotopes have several specific uses. The suitable half-life and decay mode made lutetium-176 used as a pure beta emitter, using lutetium which has been exposed to neutron activation, and in lutetium–hafnium dating to date meteorites.  The synthetic isotope lutetium-177 bound to octreotate (a somatostatin analogue), is used experimentally in targeted radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine tumors. Indeed, lutetium-177 is seeing increased usage as a radionuclide in neuroendrocine tumor therapy and bone pain palliation. Research indicates that lutetium-ion atomic clocks could provide greater accuracy than any existing atomic clock.

Lutetium tantalate (LuTaO4) is the densest known stable white material (density 9.81 g/cm3) and therefore is an ideal host for X-ray phosphors. The only denser white material is thorium dioxide, with density of 10 g/cm3, but the thorium it contains is radioactive.

 

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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s learn about GERMANIUM!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors silicon and tin. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature.

Because it seldom appears in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry. Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth’s crust. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties from its position on his periodic table, and called the element ekasilicon. Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in an uncommon mineral called argyrodite. Although the new element somewhat resembled arsenic and antimony in appearance, the combining ratios in compounds agreed with Mendeleev’s predictions for a relative of silicon. Winkler named the element after his country, Germany. Today, germanium is mined primarily from sphalerite (the primary ore of zinc), though germanium is also recovered commercially from silverlead, and copper ores.

Elemental germanium is used as a semiconductor in transistors and various other electronic devices. Historically, the first decade of semiconductor electronics was based entirely on germanium. Presently, the major end uses are fibre-optic systems, infrared opticssolar cell applications, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Germanium compounds are also used for polymerization catalysts and have most recently found use in the production of nanowires. This element forms a large number of organogermanium compounds, such as tetraethylgermanium, useful in organometallic chemistry. Germanium is considered a technology-critical element.

Germanium is not thought to be an essential element for any living organism. Some complex organic germanium compounds are being investigated as possible pharmaceuticals, though none have yet proven successful. Similar to silicon and aluminium, naturally-occurring germanium compounds tend to be insoluble in water and thus have little oral toxicity. However, synthetic soluble germanium salts are nephrotoxic, and synthetic chemically reactive germanium compounds with halogens and hydrogen are irritants and toxins.

Silicon-germanium alloys are rapidly becoming an important semiconductor material for high-speed integrated circuits. Circuits utilizing the properties of Si-SiGe junctions can be much faster than those using silicon alone. Silicon-germanium is beginning to replace gallium arsenide (GaAs) in wireless communications devices. The SiGe chips, with high-speed properties, can be made with low-cost, well-established production techniques of the silicon chip industry.

Solar panels are a major use of germanium. Germanium is the substrate of the wafers for high-efficiency multijunction photovoltaic cells for space applications. High-brightness LEDs, used for automobile headlights and to backlight LCD screens, are an important application.

Because germanium and gallium arsenide have very similar lattice constants, germanium substrates can be used to make gallium arsenide solar cells.The Mars Exploration Rovers and several satellites use triple junction gallium arsenide on germanium cells.

Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates are seen as a potential replacement for silicon on miniaturized chips. CMOS circuit based on GeOI substrates has been reported recently. Other uses in electronics include phosphors in fluorescent lamps and solid-state light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Germanium transistors are still used in some effects pedals by musicians who wish to reproduce the distinctive tonal character of the “fuzz”-tone from the early rock and roll era, most notably the Dallas Arbiter Fuzz Face.

 

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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s learn about ARSENIC!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arsenic is a chemical element with the symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic is a metalloid. It has various allotropes, but only the gray form, which has a metallic appearance, is important to the industry.

The primary use of arsenic is in alloys of lead (for example, in car batteries and ammunition). Arsenic is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices. It is also a component of the III-V compound semiconductor gallium arsenide. Arsenic and its compounds, especially trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides, treated wood products, herbicides, and insecticides. These applications are declining with the increasing recognition of the toxicity of arsenic and its compounds.

A few species of bacteria are able to use arsenic compounds as respiratory metabolites. Trace quantities of arsenic are an essential dietary element in rats, hamsters, goats, chickens, and presumably other species. A role in human metabolism is not known. However, arsenic poisoning occurs in multicellular life if quantities are larger than needed. Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a problem that affects millions of people across the world.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency states that all forms of arsenic are a serious risk to human health. The United States Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ranked arsenic as number 1 in its 2001 Priority List of Hazardous Substances at Superfund sites. Arsenic is classified as a Group-A carcinogen.

Arsenic was also used in various agricultural insecticides and poisons. For example, lead hydrogen arsenate was a common insecticide on fruit trees, but contact with the compound sometimes resulted in brain damage among those working the sprayers. In the second half of the 20th century, monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA) and disodium methyl arsenate (DSMA) – less toxic organic forms of arsenic – replaced lead arsenate in agriculture. These organic arsenicals were in turn phased out by 2013 in all agricultural activities except cotton farming.

The biogeochemistry of arsenic is complex and includes various adsorption and desorption processes. The toxicity of arsenic is connected to its solubility and is affected by pH. Arsenite (AsO3−3) is more soluble than arsenate (AsO3−
4
) and is more toxic; however, at a lower pH, arsenate becomes more mobile and toxic. It was found that addition of sulfur, phosphorus, and iron oxides to high-arsenite soils greatly reduces arsenic phytotoxicity.

Arsenic is used as a feed additive in poultry and swine production, in particular in the U.S. to increase weight gain, improve feed efficiency, and prevent disease. An example is roxarsone, which had been used as a broiler starter by about 70% of U.S. broiler growers. Alpharma, a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc., which produces roxarsone, voluntarily suspended sales of the drug in response to studies showing elevated levels of inorganic arsenic, a carcinogen, in treated chickens. A successor to Alpharma, Zoetis, continues to sell nitarsone, primarily for use in turkeys.

Arsenic is intentionally added to the feed of chickens raised for human consumption. Organic arsenic compounds are less toxic than pure arsenic and promote the growth of chickens. Under some conditions, the arsenic in chicken feed is converted to the toxic inorganic form.

A 2006 study of the remains of the Australian racehorse, Phar Lap, determined that the 1932 death of the famous champion was caused by a massive overdose of arsenic. Sydney veterinarian Percy Sykes stated, “In those days, arsenic was quite a common tonic, usually given in the form of a solution (Fowler’s Solution) … It was so common that I’d reckon 90% of the horses had arsenic in their system.”

 

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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s learn about CERIUM!

 

Cerium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cerium is a chemical element with the symbol Ce and atomic number 58. Cerium is soft, pliable, and silvery-white metal that discolors and ruins when exposed to air, and it is soft enough to be cut with a steel kitchen knife. Cerium is the second element in the lanthanide series, and while it often shows the +3 oxidation state (typical and expected) of the series, it also has a stable +4 state that does not oxidize water. It is also thought about/believed one of the rare-earth elements. Cerium has no (related to the body function of living things) role in humans and is not very poisonous.

Previously always happening in combination with the other rare-earth elements in minerals such as those of the monazite and bastnäsite groups, cerium is easy to extract from its ores, as it can be distinguished among the lanthanides by its (like nothing else in the world) ability to be oxidized to the +4 state. It is the most common of the lanthanides, followed by neodymium, lanthanum, and praseodymium. It is the 26th-most plentiful element, making up 66 ppm of the Earth’s crust, half as much as chlorine and five times as much as lead.

Cerium was the first of the lanthanides to be discovered, in Bastnäs, Sweden, by Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Wilhelm Hisinger in 1803, and independently by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in Germany in the same year. In 1839 Carl Gustaf Mosander became the first to (separate far from others) the metal. Today, cerium and its compounds have a variety of uses: for example, cerium(IV) oxide is used to polish glass and is an important part of (devices in vehicles that reduce pollution). Cerium metal is used in ferrocerium lighters for its pyrophoric properties. Cerium-doped YAG phosphor is used along with blue light-sending-out diodes to produce white light in most commercial white LED light sources.

Cerium was discovered in Bastnäs in Sweden by Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Wilhelm Hisinger, and independently in Germany by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, both in 1803. Cerium was named by Berzelius after the space rock Ceres, discovered two years earlier. The space rock is itself named after the Roman goddess Ceres, goddess of farm-related, grain crops, life-creating ability, and motherly relationships.

Cerium was initially separate in the form of its oxide, which was named ceria, a term that is still used. The metal itself was too electropositive to be (separated far from others) by then-current smelting technology, a (feature/ quality/ trait) of rare-earth metals in general. After the development of electrochemistry by Humphry Davy five years later, the earths soon cooperated with/produced/gave up the metals they contained. Ceria, as (separated far from others) in 1803, contained all of the lanthanides present in the cerite ore from Bastnäs, Sweden, and so only contained about 45% of what is now known to be total/totally/with nothing else mixed in ceria.

It was not until Carl Gustaf Mosander succeeded in removing lanthana and “didymia” in the late 1830s that ceria was gotten total/totally/with nothing else mixed in. Wilhelm Hisinger was a rich mine-owner and inexperienced/low-quality scientist, and sponsor of Berzelius. He owned and controlled the mine at Bastnäs, and had been trying for years to find out the composition of the plentiful heavy gangue rock (the “Tungsten of Bastnäs”, which (even though there is the existence of) its name contained no tungsten), now known as cerite, that he had in his mine. Mosander and his family lived for many years in the same house as Berzelius, and Mosander was definitely convinced by Berzelius to question ceria further.

The element played a role in the Manhattan Project, where cerium compounds were examined in the Berkeley site as materials for red-hot containers for uranium and plutonium casting. For this reason, new methods for the preparation and casting of cerium were developed within the extent of/the range of the Ames daughter project (now the Ames Laboratory). Production of Cerium in Ames began in mid-1944 and continued until August 1945.

 

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