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Let’s learn about XENON!


H7 Ring Xenon 130 Headlamp Bulbs - Devon 4x4 - DA5024-130-BRP



Xenon is a chemical element with the symbol Xe and atomic number 54. It is a colorless, dense, odorless noble gas found in Earth’s atmosphere in trace amounts. Although generally unreactive, xenon can undergo a few chemical reactions such as the formation of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, the first noble gas compound to be synthesized.

Xenon is used in flash lamps and arc lamps, and as a general anesthetic. The first excimer laser design used a xenon dimer molecule (Xe2) as the lasing medium, and the earliest laser designs used xenon flash lamps as pumps. Xenon is used to search for hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles[20] and as the propellant for ion thrusters in spacecraft.

Naturally occurring xenon consists of seven stable isotopes and two long-lived radioactive isotopes. More than 40 unstable xenon isotopes undergo radioactive decay, and the isotope ratios of xenon are an important tool for studying the early history of the Solar System. Radioactive xenon-135 is produced by beta decay from iodine-135 (a product of nuclear fission), and is the most significant (and unwanted) neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.

Xenon was discovered in England by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in September 1898, shortly after their discovery of the elements krypton and neon. They found xenon in the residue left over from evaporating components of liquid air. Ramsay suggested the name xenon for this gas from the Greek word ξένον xénon, neuter singular form of ξένος xénos, meaning ‘foreign(er)’, ‘strange(r)’, or ‘guest’. In 1902, Ramsay estimated the proportion of xenon in the Earth’s atmosphere to be one part in 20 million.

During the 1930s, American engineer Harold Edgerton began exploring strobe light technology for high speed photography. This led him to the invention of the xenon flash lamp in which light is generated by passing brief electric current through a tube filled with xenon gas. In 1934, Edgerton was able to generate flashes as brief as one microsecond with this method.

In 1939, American physician Albert R. Behnke Jr. began exploring the causes of “drunkenness” in deep-sea divers. He tested the effects of varying the breathing mixtures on his subjects, and discovered that this caused the divers to perceive a change in depth. From his results, he deduced that xenon gas could serve as an anesthetic. Although Russian toxicologist Nikolay V. Lazarev apparently studied xenon anesthesia in 1941, the first published report confirming xenon anesthesia was in 1946 by American medical researcher John H. Lawrence, who experimented on mice. Xenon was first used as a surgical anesthetic in 1951 by American anesthesiologist Stuart C. Cullen, who successfully used it with two patients.

Xenon and the other noble gases were for a long time considered to be completely chemically inert and not able to form compounds. However, while teaching at the University of British Columbia, Neil Bartlett discovered that the gas platinum hexafluoride (PtF6) was a powerful oxidizing agent that could oxidize oxygen gas (O2) to form dioxygenyl hexafluoroplatinate (O+2[PtF 6]−). Since O2(1165 kJ/mol) and xenon (1170 kJ/mol) have almost the same first ionization potential, Bartlett realized that platinum hexafluoride might also be able to oxidize xenon. On March 23, 1962, he mixed the two gases and produced the first known compound of a noble gas, xenon hexafluoroplatinate.

Bartlett thought its composition to be Xe+[PtF6]−, but later work revealed that it was probably a mixture of various xenon-containing salts. Since then, many other xenon compounds have been discovered, in addition to some compounds of the noble gases argon, krypton, and radon, including argon fluorohydride (HArF), krypton difluoride (KrF2), and radon fluoride. By 1971, more than 80 xenon compounds were known.

In November 1989, IBM scientists demonstrated a technology capable of manipulating individual atoms. The program, called IBM in atoms, used a scanning tunneling microscope to arrange 35 individual xenon atoms on a substrate of chilled crystal of nickel to spell out the three letter company initialism. It was the first time atoms had been precisely positioned on a flat surface.

Xenon has atomic number 54; that is, its nucleus contains 54 protons. At standard temperature and pressure, pure xenon gas has a density of 5.761 kg/m3, about 4.5 times the density of the Earth’s atmosphere at sea level, 1.217 kg/m3. As a liquid, xenon has a density of up to 3.100 g/mL, with the density maximum occurring at the triple point. Liquid xenon has a high polarizability due to its large atomic volume, and thus is an excellent solvent. It can dissolve hydrocarbons, biological molecules, and even water. Under the same conditions, the density of solid xenon, 3.640 g/cm3, is greater than the average density of granite, 2.75 g/cm3. Under gigapascals of pressure, xenon forms a metallic phase.


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Let’s learn about TELLURIUM!


Native Tellurium


Tellurium is a chemical element with the symbol Te and atomic number 52. It is a brittle, mildly toxic, rare, silver-white metalloid. Tellurium is chemically related to selenium and sulfur, all three of which are chalcogens. It is occasionally found in native form as elemental crystals. Tellurium is far more common in the Universe as a whole than on Earth. Its extreme rarity in the Earth’s crust, comparable to that of platinum, is due partly to its formation of a volatile hydride that caused tellurium to be lost to space as a gas during the hot nebular formation of Earth, and partly to tellurium’s low affinity for oxygen, which causes it to bind preferentially to other chalcophiles in dense minerals that sink into the core.

Tellurium-bearing compounds were first discovered in 1782 in a gold mine in Kleinschlatten, Transylvania (now Zlatna, Romania) by Austrian mineralogist Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein, although it was Martin Heinrich Klaproth who named the new element in 1798 after the Latin word for “earth”, tellus. Gold telluride minerals are the most notable natural gold compounds. However, they are not a commercially significant source of tellurium itself, which is normally extracted as a by-product of copper and lead production.

Commercially, the primary use of tellurium is copper (tellurium copper) and steel alloys, where it improves machinability. Applications in CdTe solar panels and cadmium telluride semiconductors also consume a considerable portion of tellurium production. Tellurium is considered a technology-critical element.

Tellurium has no biological function, although fungi can use it in place of sulfur and selenium in amino acids such as tellurocysteine and telluromethionine. In humans, tellurium is partly metabolized into dimethyl telluride, (CH3)2Te, a gas with a garlic-like odor exhaled in the breath of victims of tellurium exposure or poisoning.

Tellurium has two allotropes, crystalline and amorphous. When crystalline, tellurium is silvery-white with a metallic luster. It is a brittle and easily pulverized metalloid. Amorphous tellurium is a black-brown powder prepared by precipitating it from a solution of tellurous acid or telluric acid (Te(OH)6). Tellurium is a semiconductor that shows a greater electrical conductivity in certain directions depending on atomic alignment; the conductivity increases slightly when exposed to light (photoconductivity). When molten, tellurium is corrosive to copper, iron, and stainless steel. Of the chalcogens (oxygen-family elements), tellurium has the highest melting and boiling points, at 722.66 K (841.12 °F) and 1,261 K (1,810 °F), respectively.

Tellurium adopts a polymeric structure consisting of zig-zag chains of Te atoms. This gray material resists oxidation by air and is not volatile.

Naturally occurring tellurium has eight isotopes. Six of those isotopes, 120Te, 122Te, 123Te, 124Te, 125Te, and 126Te, are stable. The other two, 128Te and 130Te, have been found to be slightly radioactive, with extremely long half-lives, including 2.2 × 1024 years for 128Te. This is the longest known half-life among all radionuclides and is about 160 trillion (1012) times the age of the known universe. Stable isotopes comprise only 33.2% of naturally occurring tellurium.

A further 31 artificial radioisotopes of tellurium are known, with atomic masses ranging from 104 to 142 and with half-lives of 19 days or less. Also, 17 nuclear isomers are known, with half-lives up to 154 days. With the exception of beryllium-8 and beta-delayed alpha emission branches in some lighter nuclides, tellurium (104Te to 109Te) is the lightest element with isotopes known to undergo alpha decay.

The atomic mass of tellurium (127.60 g·mol−1) exceeds that of iodine (126.90 g·mol−1), the next element in the periodic table.




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Let’s learn about POLONIUM!




Polonium is a chemical element with the symbol Po and atomic number 84. Polonium is a chalcogen. A rare and highly radioactive metal with no stable isotopes, polonium is chemically similar to selenium and tellurium, though its metallic character resembles that of its horizontal neighbors in the periodic table: thallium, lead, and bismuth. Due to the short half-life of all its isotopes, its natural occurrence is limited to tiny traces of the fleeting polonium-210 (with a half-life of 138 days) in uranium ores, as it is the penultimate daughter of natural uranium-238. Though slightly longer-lived isotopes exist, they are much more difficult to produce. Today, polonium is usually produced in milligram quantities by the neutron irradiation of bismuth. Due to its intense radioactivity, which results in the radiolysis of chemical bonds and radioactive self-heating, its chemistry has mostly been investigated on the trace scale only.

Polonium was discovered in July 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie, when it was extracted from the uranium ore pitchblende and identified solely by its strong radioactivity: it was the first element to be so discovered. Polonium was named after Marie Curie’s homeland of Poland. Polonium has few applications, and those are related to its radioactivity: heaters in space probes, antistatic devices, sources of neutrons and alpha particles, and poison. It is extremely dangerous to humans.

210Po is an alpha emitter that has a half-life of 138.4 days; it decays directly to its stable daughter isotope, 206Pb. A milligram (5 curies) of 210Po emits about as many alpha particles per second as 5 grams of 226Ra. A few curies (1 curie equals 37 gigabecquerels, 1 Ci = 37 GBq) of 210Po emit a blue glow which is caused by ionisation of the surrounding air.

About one in 100,000 alpha emissions causes an excitation in the nucleus which then results in the emission of a gamma ray with a maximum energy of 803 keV.

Polonium is a radioactive element that exists in two metallic allotropes. The alpha form is the only known example of a simple cubic crystal structure in a single atom basis at STP, with an edge length of 335.2 picometers; the beta form is rhombohedral.] The structure of polonium has been characterized by X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction.

210Po (in common with 238Pu[citation needed]) has the ability to become airborne with ease: if a sample is heated in air to 55 °C (131 °F), 50% of it is vaporized in 45 hours to form diatomic Po2 molecules, even though the melting point of polonium is 254 °C (489 °F) and its boiling point is 962 °C (1,764 °F). More than one hypothesis exists for how polonium does this; one suggestion is that small clusters of polonium atoms are spalled off by the alpha decay.

The chemistry of polonium is similar to that of tellurium, although it also shows some similarities to its neighbor bismuth due to its metallic character. Polonium dissolves readily in dilute acids but is only slightly soluble in alkalis. Polonium solutions are first colored in pink by the Po2+ ions, but then rapidly become yellow because alpha radiation from polonium ionizes the solvent and converts Po2+ into Po4+. As polonium also emits alpha-particles after disintegration so this process is accompanied by bubbling and emission of heat and light by glassware due to the absorbed alpha particles; as a result, polonium solutions are volatile and will evaporate within days unless sealed. At pH about 1, polonium ions are readily hydrolyzed and complexed by acids such as oxalic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acid.

Polonium has no common compounds, and almost all of its compounds are synthetically created; more than 50 of those are known. The most stable class of polonium compounds are polonides, which are prepared by direct reaction of two elements. Na2Po has the antifluorite structure, the polonides of Ca, Ba, Hg, Pb and lanthanides form a NaCl lattice, BePo and CdPo have the wurtzite and MgPo the nickel arsenide structure. Most polonides decompose upon heating to about 600 °C, except for HgPo that decomposes at ~300 °C and the lanthanide polonides, which do not decompose but melt at temperatures above 1000 °C. For example, PrPo melts at 1250 °C and TmPo at 2200 °C. PbPo is one of the very few naturally occurring polonium compounds, as polonium alpha decays to form lead.

Polonium hydride (PoH2) is a volatile liquid at room temperature prone to dissociation; it is thermally unstable. Water is the only other known hydrogen chalcogenide which is a liquid at room temperature; however, this is due to hydrogen bonding. The three oxides, PoO, PoO2 and PoO3, are the products of oxidation of polonium.

Halides of the structure PoX2, PoX4 and PoF6 are known. They are soluble in the corresponding hydrogen halides, i.e., PoClX in HCl, PoBrX in HBr and PoI4 in HI. Polonium dihalides are formed by direct reaction of the elements or by reduction of PoCl4 with SO2 and with PoBr4 with H2S at room temperature. Tetrahalides can be obtained by reacting polonium dioxide with HCl, HBr or HI.

Other polonium compounds include potassium polonite as a polonite, polonate, acetate, bromate, carbonate, citrate, chromate, cyanide, formate, (II) and (IV) hydroxides, nitrate, selenate, selenite, monosulfide, sulfate, disulfate and sulfite.

A limited organopolonium chemistry is known, mostly restricted to dialkyl and diaryl polonides (R2Po), triarylpolonium halides (Ar3PoX), and diarylpolonium dihalides (Ar2PoX2). Polonium also forms soluble compounds with some chelating agents, such as 2,3-butanediol and thiourea.



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Let’s learn about BISMUTH!

Bismuth Crystal | Rainbow Bismuth - Rose and Rabbit Designs

Bismuth is a chemical element with the symbol Bi and atomic number 83. It is a pentavalent post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens with chemical properties resembling its lighter group 15 siblings arsenic and antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores. The free element is 86% as dense as lead. It is a brittle metal with a silvery-white color when freshly produced, but surface oxidation can give it an iridescent tinge in numerous colours. Bismuth is the most naturally diamagnetic element and has one of the lowest values of thermal conductivity among metals.

Bismuth was long considered the element with the highest atomic mass that is stable, but in 2003 it was discovered to be extremely weakly radioactive: its only primordial isotope, bismuth-209, decays via alpha decay with a half-life more than a billion times the estimated age of the universe. Because of its tremendously long half-life, bismuth may still be considered stable for almost all purposes.

Bismuth metal has been known since ancient times, although it was often confused with lead and tin, which share some physical properties. The etymology is uncertain, but the word may come from the German words weiße Masse or Wismuth (“white mass”), translated in the mid-sixteenth century to New Latin bisemutum or bisemutium.

Bismuth compounds account for about half the production of bismuth. They are used in cosmetics; pigments; and a few pharmaceuticals, notably bismuth subsalicylate, used to treat diarrhea. Bismuth’s unusual propensity to expand as it solidifies is responsible for some of its uses, such as in the casting of printing type. Bismuth has unusually low toxicity for a heavy metal. As the toxicity of lead has become more apparent in recent years, there is an increasing use of bismuth alloys (presently about a third of bismuth production) as a replacement for lead.

Bismuth metal has been known since ancient times; it was one of the first 10 metals to have been discovered. The name bismuth dates from around the 1660s and is of uncertain etymology; it possibly comes from obsolete German Bismuth, Wismut, Wissmuth (early 16th century), perhaps related to Old High German hwiz (“white”). The New Latin bisemutium (due to Georgius Agricola, who Latinized many German mining and technical words) is from the German Wismuth, perhaps from weiße Masse, “white mass”.

The element was confused in early times with tin and lead because of its resemblance to those elements. Because bismuth has been known since ancient times, no one person is credited with its discovery. Agricola (1546) states that bismuth is a distinct metal in a family of metals including tin and lead. This was based on observation of the metals and their physical properties.

Miners in the age of alchemy also gave bismuth the name tectum argenti, or “silver being made,” in the sense of silver still in the process of being formed within the Earth.

Bismuth was also known to the Incas and used (along with the usual copper and tin) in a special bronze alloy for knives.

Alchemical symbol used by Torbern Bergman (1775).  Beginning with Johann Heinrich Pott in 1738, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, and Torbern Olof Bergman, the distinctness of lead and bismuth became clear, and Claude François Geoffroy demonstrated in 1753 that this metal is distinct from lead and tin.

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Let’s learn about CAESIUM!

Let's learn about CAESIUM!


Caesium is a chemical element with the symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-golden alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 °C (83.3 °F), which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature.  It has physical and chemical properties similar to those of rubidium and potassium. The most reactive of all metals, it is pyrophoric and reacts with water even at −116 °C (−177 °F). It is the least electronegative element, with a value of 0.79 on the Pauling scale. It has only one stable isotope, caesium-133. Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially caesium-137, a fission product, are extracted from waste produced by nuclear reactors.

The metal is characterised by a spectrum containing two bright lines in the blue (accounting for its name). It is silvery gold, soft, and ductile. It is the most electropositive and most alkaline element. Cesium, gallium, and mercury are the only three metals that are liquid at or around room temperature. Cesium reacts explosively with cold water, and reacts with ice at temperatures above -116°C. Cesium hydroxide is a strong base and attacks glass. Cesium reacts with the halogens to form a fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide. Cesium metal oxidized rapidly when exposed to the air and can form the dangerous superoxide on its surface.

It is used in industry as a catalyst promoter, boosting the performance of other metal oxides in the capacity and for the hydrogenation of organic compounds. Cesium nitrate is used to make optical glasses. It is sometimes used to remove traces of oxygen from the vacuum tubes and from light bulbs. Cesium salts are used to strenght various types of glass. The chloride is used in photoelectric cells, in optical instruments, and in increasing the sensitivity of electron tubes. Cesium is used in atomic clocks and more recently in ion propulsion systems.


Let's learn about CAESIUM!


Humans may be exposed to cesium by breathing, drinking or eating. In air the levels of cesium are generally low, but radioactive cesium has been detected at some level in surface water and in many types of foods.

The amount of cesium in foods and drinks depends upon the emission of radioactive cesium through nuclear power plants, mainly through accidents. These accidents have not occurred since the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. People that work in the nuclear power industry may be exposed to higher levels of cesium, but many precautionary measurements can be taken to prevent this.

Caesium was almost discovered by Carl Plattner in 1846 when he investigated the mineral pollucite (caesium aluminium silicate). He could only account for 93% of the elements it contained, but then ran out of material to analyse. (It was later realised that he mistook the caesium for sodium and potassium.)

The most common use for caesium compounds is as a drilling fluid. They are also used to make special optical glass, as a catalyst promoter, in vacuum tubes and in radiation monitoring equipment.

One of its most important uses is in the ‘caesium clock’ (atomic clock). These clocks are a vital part of the internetand mobile phone networks, as well as Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. They give the standard measure of time: the electron resonance frequency of the caesium atom is 9,192,631,770 cycles per second. Some caesium clocks are accurate to 1 second in 15 million years.


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Let’s learn about RUBIDIUM!


Rubidium (Rb), chemical element of Group 1 (Ia) in the periodic table, the alkali metal group. It is the second most reactive metal. Rubidium is the chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37. It is a very soft, silvery-white metal in the alkali metal group. Rubidium metal shares similarities to potassium metal and caesium metal in physical appearance, softness and conductivity

This element was discovered (1861) spectroscopically by German scientists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff and named after the two prominent red lines of its spectrum. Rubidium and cesium often occur together in nature. Rubidium, however, is more widely scattered and seldom forms a natural mineral; it is found only as an impurity in other minerals, ranging in content up to 5 percent in such minerals as lepidolite, pollucite, and carnallite. Brine samples have also been analyzed that contain up to 6 parts per million of rubidium.



It is difficult to handle because it ignites spontaneously in air, and it reacts violently with water to yield a solution of rubidium hydroxide (RbOH) and hydrogen, which bursts into flames; rubidium is therefore kept in dry mineral oil or an atmosphere of hydrogen.

Natural rubidium makes up about 0.01 percent of Earth’s crust; it exists as a mixture of two isotopes: rubidium-85 (72.15 percent) and the radioactive rubidium-87 (27.85 percent), which emits beta rays with a half-life of about 6 × 1011 years. A large number of radioactive isotopes have been artificially prepared, from rubidium-79 to rubidium-95.


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Let’s learn about MAGNESIUM!



Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure.

This element is produced in large, aging stars from the sequential addition of three helium nuclei to a carbon nucleus. When such stars explode as supernovas, much of the magnesium is expelled into the interstellar medium where it may recycle into new star systems. It is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and the fourth most common element in the Earth (after iron, oxygen and silicon), making up 13% of the planet’s mass and a large fraction of the planet’s mantle. It is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater, after sodium and chlorine.

Magnesium is a nutrient that the body needs to stay healthy. It is important for many processes in the body, including regulating muscle and nerve function, blood sugar levels, and blood pressure and making protein, bone, and DNA.

Historically, magnesium was one of the main aerospace construction metals and was used for German military aircraft as early as World War I and extensively for German aircraft in World War II. The Germans coined the name “Elektron” for magnesium alloy, a term which is still used today. In the commercial aerospace industry, magnesium was generally restricted to engine-related components, due to fire and corrosion hazards. Magnesium alloy use in aerospace is increasing in the 21st century, driven by the importance of fuel economy.

In the form of thin ribbons, magnesium is used to purify solvents; for example, preparing super-dry ethanol.



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Let’s learn about HYDROGEN!

Let's learn about HYDROGEN!


Hydrogen (H) is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, flammable gaseous substance that is the simplest member of the family of chemical elements. The H atom has a nucleus consisting of a proton bearing one unit of positive electrical charge; an electron, bearing one unit of negative electrical charge, is also associated with this nucleus. Under ordinary conditions, H gas is a loose aggregation of hydrogen molecules, each consisting of a pair of atoms, a diatomic molecule, H2. The earliest known important chemical property of hydrogen is that it burns with oxygen to form water, H2O; indeed, the name hydrogen is derived from Greek words meaning “maker of water.”

Hydrogen is the chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 1.008, it is the lightest element in the periodic table. It is the most abundant chemical substance in the universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.


Let's learn about HYDROGEN!


Hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to generate electricity, or power and heat. Today, it is most commonly used in petroleum refining and fertilizer production, while transportation and utilities are emerging markets. It is a clean alternative to methane, also known as natural gas. It’s the most abundant chemical element, estimated to contribute 75% of the mass of the universe.

What is the difference between blue and green hydrogen? Blue hydrogen is produced from non-renewable energy sources, by using one of two primary methods. Steam methane reformation is the most common method for producing bulk hydrogen and accounts for most of the world’s production. This method uses a reformer, which reacts steam at a high temperature and pressure with methane and a nickel catalyst to form hydrogen and carbon monoxide.


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Let’s Learn About BERYLLIUM!

Let's Learn About BERYLLIUM!


Beryllium is a silvery-white metal. It is relatively soft and has a low density.
Named after beryllos, the Greek name for the mineral beryl, the element was originally known as glucinium — from Greek glykys, meaning “sweet” — to reflect its characteristic taste. But the chemists who discovered this unique property of beryllium also found that it is in fact highly toxic and should therefore never be tasted,
It is used in alloys with copper or nickel to make gyroscopes, springs, electrical contacts, spot-welding electrodes and non-sparking tools. Mixing beryllium with these metals increases their electrical and thermal conductivity.

Atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus): 4
Atomic symbol (on the Periodic Table of the Elements): Be
Atomic weight (average mass of the atom): 9.012182
Density: 1.85 grams per cubic centimeter
Phase at room temperature: Solid
Melting point: 2,348.6 degrees Fahrenheit (1,287 degrees Celsius)
Boiling point: 4,479.8 F (2,471 C)
Number of isotopes (atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons): 12, including one stable isotope.
Most common isotopes: 9Be (Natural abundance: 100 percent)


Let's Learn About BERYLLIUM!

Beryllium is used in gears and cogs particularly in the aviation industry.  Other beryllium alloys are used as structural materials for high-speed aircraft, missiles, spacecraft and communication satellites. It is relatively transparent to X-rays so ultra-thin beryllium foil is finding use in X-ray lithography. It is also used in nuclear reactors as a reflector or moderator of neutrons.

The oxide has a very high melting point making it useful in nuclear work as well as having ceramic applications.

Beryllium and its compounds are toxic and carcinogenic. If beryllium dust or fumes are inhaled, it can lead to an incurable inflammation of the lungs called berylliosis.


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Let’s Learn About TUNGSTEN!


Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with the symbol W and atomic number 74. Tungsten is a rare metal found naturally on Earth almost only as compounds with other elements. It was identified as a new element in 1781 and first (separated far from others) as a metal in 1783. Its important ores include tungsten, scheelite, and wolframite, the last lending the element its alternate name.

The free element is amazing and interesting for its strength and health, especially the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the elements discovered, melting at 3,422 °C (6,192 °F; 3,695 K) (carbon amazings rather than melts at (related to the air outside) pressure). It also has the highest boiling point, at 5,930 °C (10,710 °F; 6,200 K).[10] Its density is 19.25 grams per cubic centimetre, similar with that of uranium and gold, and much higher (about 1.7 times) than that of lead. Polycrystalline tungsten is a naturally easily broken and hard material (under standard conditions, when uncombined), making it very hard to work. However, total/totally/with nothing else mixed in single-(very clear/related to things that look like little pieces of clear glass) tungsten is more (able to be flattened or drawn into wire) and can be cut with a hard-steel hacksaw.


Californium is one of the few transuranium elements that have practical uses. Most of these applications use (for selfish reasons) property of certain isotopes of californium to give off neutrons. For example, californium can be used to help start up nuclear reactors, and it is employed as a source of neutrons when studying materials using neutron diffraction and neutron spectroscopy. Californium can also be used in nuclear (creation/combination) of higher mass elements; oganesson (element 118) was made/created by (overloading and overwhelming with bullets, questions, requests, etc) californium-249 atoms with (silvery metal/important nutrient)-48 ions. Users of californium must take into account (related to X-rays)al concerns and the element’s ability to disrupt the (creation and construction/ group of objects) of red blood cells by bioaccumulating in extremely skinny/skeleton-related tissue.

Californium was first made/created at the University of California Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, by the physics (people who work to find information) Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg on or about February 9, 1950. It was the sixth transuranium element to be discovered; the team announced its discovery on March 17, 1950.



Tungsten happens in many mixtures (of metals), which have many uses, including glowing light bulb thin threads, X-ray tubes, electrodes in gas tungsten arc welding, superalloys, and radiation shielding. Tungsten’s hardness and high density make it good for military uses in penetrating (things thrown or fired at high speeds). Tungsten compounds are often used as industrial helping forces.

Tungsten is the only metal in the third change (from one thing to another) series that is known to happen in biomolecules, being found in a few (group of similar living things) of bacteria and archaea. However, tungsten interferes with molybdenum and copper (chemically processing and using food) and is somewhat poisonous to most forms of animal life.



In 1781, Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered that a new acid, tungstic acid, could be made from scheelite (at the time tungsten). Scheele and Torbern Bergman suggested that it might be possible to get a new metal by reducing this acid. In 1783, Jose and Fausto Elhuyar found an acid made from wolframite that was identical to tungstic acid. Later that year, at the Royal Basque (community of people/all good people in the world) in the town of Bergara, Spain, the brothers succeeded in (separating far from others) tungsten by reduction of this acid with charcoal, and they are credited with the discovery of the element (they called it “wolfram” or “volfram”).

The (related to a plan to reach a goal) value of tungsten came to (see/hear/become aware of) in the early 20th century. British people in charge acted in 1912 to free the Carrock mine from the German owned Cumbrian Mining Company and, during World War I, restrict German access in other places. In World War II, tungsten played a more a big role in background political dealings. Portugal, as the main (related to Europe) source of the element, was put under pressure from both sides, because of its deposits of wolframite ore at Panasqueira. Tungsten’s desirable properties such as resistance to high temperatures, its hardness and density, and its strengthening of mixtures (of metals) made it an important raw material for the arms industry, both as a voter/part of weapons and equipment and employed in production itself, e.g., in tungsten carbide cutting tools for machining steel. Now tungsten is used in many more applications such as aircraft & motorsport (weight that steadies a ship, aircraft, etc.) weights, darts, anti-vibration tooling, and sporting equipment.



The name “tungsten” (which means “heavy stone” in Swedish) is used in English, French, and many other languages as the name of the element, but not in the Nordic countries. “Tungsten” was the old Swedish name for the mineral scheelite. “Wolfram” (or “volfram”) is used in most (related to Europe) (especially Germanic, Spanish and Slavic) languages and is taken from the mineral wolframite, which is the origin of the chemical symbol W. The name “wolframite” is taken from German “wolf rahm” (“wolf soot” or “wolf cream”), the name given to tungsten by Johan Gottschalk Wallerius in 1747. This, in turn, comes from Latin “lupi spuma”, the name Georg Agricola used for the element in 1546, which translates into English as “wolf’s froth” and is a reference to the large amounts of tin used/ate/drank/destroyed by the mineral during its extraction.

The world’s reserves of tungsten are 3,200,000 tonnes; they are mostly located in China (1,800,000 t), Canada (290,000 t),[48] Russia (160,000 t), Vietnam (95,000 t) and Bolivia. As of 2017, China, Vietnam and Russia are the leading suppliers with 79,000, 7,200 and 3,100 tonnes, (match up each pair of items in order). Canada had stopped production in late 2015 due to the closure of its only tungsten mine. Meanwhile, Vietnam had increased (a lot) its output in the 2010s, because of the major optimization of its domestic making better/making more pure operations, and ran faster than Russia and Bolivia.



China remains the world’s leader not only in production, but also in export and consumption of tungsten products. Tungsten production is slowly increasing outside China because of the rising demand. Meanwhile, its supply by China is strictly controlled by the Chinese Government, which fights illegal mining and too much/too many pollution starting from mining and making better/making more pure processes.

Tungsten is carefully thought about/believed to be a conflict mineral due to the (dishonest and wrong) mining practices watched/followed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.There is a large deposit of tungsten ore on the edge of Dartmoor in the United Kingdom, which was taken advantage of during World War I and World War II as the Hemerdon Mine. Following increases in tungsten prices, this mine was reactivated in 2014,[53] but stopped activities in 2018.



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