How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s Learn About PALLADIUM!

Palladium is a chemical element with the symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by the English chemist William Hyde Wollaston and named after an asteroid.  Before the precious metal palladium was discovered, the word “palladium” referred to objects believed to mystically provide protection and safety ( a talisman ). The origin of the definition comes from Homer’s Iliad.


Let's Learn About PALLADIUM!


Palladium is one of six metals belonging to the platinum family. The others are platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium, and iridium. All these precious metals are known for their catalytic abilities when it comes to speeding up chemical reactions.

Palladium is now the most valuable of the four major precious metals, with an acute shortage driving prices to a record. A key component in pollution-control devices for cars and trucks, the metal’s price doubled in little more than a year, making it more expensive than gold.


Let's Learn About PALLADIUM!


A extremely malleable and tarnish-resistant metal, palladium has become a popular metal for jewelry making and catalytic converters because it does not react with oxygen. In jewelry, palladium is known for its durability, low-maintenance, and similar appearance to platinum at a much lower cost.

Russia and South Africa supply about 40% of the world’s palladium, making them the highest producers each year.

In 2010, Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi, and Akira Suzuki were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their work in palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions and organic synthesis – which are widely used for the synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals.



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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s Learn About SILVER!

Silver is a chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal.

Silver was one of the first five elements discovered, along with gold, copper, lead and iron and has been mined for over 6000 years. Silver objects have been found dating as far back as 4000 BC.


Let's Learn About SILVER!



Silver is the most reflective element, reflecting 95% of the visible light spectrum. Unless you use it in ultraviolet light, which makes it about as reflective as a stone. It is most effective immediately after placement.  Silver is stable in oxygen and water, but tarnishes when exposed to ozone, hydrogen sulfide or air containing sulfur due to a reaction with sulfur compounds which cause a black sulfide layer. The crystal structure of silver is cubic.


Silver forms in star explosions called supernovae, as does gold. A study published in September 2012 in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics found that smaller stars that explode produce silver, while larger stars produce gold.

Silver is rare element relative to other elements. This rarity also makes it the precious metal. It is not a very reactive element, so it found in its pure form and also in some minerals, e.g. argentite. The major silver producing countries are China, Peru, and Mexico.

Silver iodide has been used to make clouds produce rain in an attempt to control hurricanes.


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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s Learn About GOLD!


Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In a pure form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element.

It is a precious metal. It has emotional, cultural and financial value and different people across the globe buy gold for different reasons, often influenced by a range of national socio-cultural factors, local market conditions and wider macro-economic drivers.


Let's Learn About GOLD!



Gold mining describes the process of extracting ore from the earth’s crust. Modern gold mining predominantly takes place in areas where there is a significant concentration of gold-bearing ore. Today, about 70% of the world’s gold production comes from surface mines, while the rest is from underground gold mines.


Let's Learn About GOLD!


Gold has several qualities that make it exceptionally valuabl. It is attractive in colour and brightness, durable to the point of virtual indestructibility, highly malleable, and usually found in nature in a comparatively pure form. The history of gold is unequaled by that of any other metal because of its perceived value from earliest times.

Gold is one of the densest of all metals. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. It is also soft and the most malleable and ductile of the elements.


Let's Learn About gold!


Because gold (Au) is visually pleasing and workable and does not tarnish or corrode, it was one of the first metals to attract human attention. Examples of amazing gold workmanship survive from ancient Egyptian, Minoan, Assyrian, and Etruscan artisans, and gold continues to be a highly favoured material out of which to craft jewelry and other decorative objects.


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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s learn about CHROMIUM!


Let's learn about CHROMIUM - In!


Chromium is a chemical element with the symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in group 6. It is a steely-grey, lustrous, hard, and brittle transition metal. Chromium is the main additive in stainless steel, to which it adds anti-corrosive properties.

It is a lustrous, brittle, hard metal. It is silver-gray and it can be highly polished. It does not tarnish in air, when heated it borns and forms the green chromic oxide. Chromium is unstable in oxygen, it immediately produces a thin oxide layer that is impermeable to oxygen and protects the metal below.



Chromium is a chemical element with the symbol Cr and atomic number 24.


It is mainly used in electroplating, tanning, printing, and dyeing, medicine, fuel, catalysts, oxidants, matches, and metal corrosion inhibitors. At the same time, metallic chromium has become one of the most important electroplated metals.

It’s used in a variety of applications. Motorcycles often feature chromium-coated components, whereas silverware may feature a similar type of chromium plating. It is used in stainless steel. It doesn’t rust. It reflects nearly 70% of visible light


Let's learn about CHROMIUM - In!






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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s learn about BORON!

Boron is a chemical (non-metalic) element with the symbol B and atomic number 5. Produced entirely by cosmic ray spallation and supernovae and not by stellar nucleosynthesis, it is a low-abundance element in the Solar System and in the Earth’s crust. It constitutes about 0.001 percent by weight of Earth’s crust.  Boron is electron-deficient, possessing a vacant p-orbital. It has several forms, the most common of which is amorphous boron, a dark powder, unreactive to oxygen, water, acids and alkalis. It reacts with metals to form borides. At standard temperatures boron is a poor electrical conductor but is a good conductor at high temperatures.

Boron is a mineral that is found in food such as nuts and the environment. People take boron supplements as medicine. It is used for building strong bones, treating osteoarthritis, as an aid for building muscles and increasing testosterone levels, and for improving thinking skills and muscle coordination.

Boron was used as a food preservative between 1870 and 1920, and during World Wars I and II.


Let's learn about BORON -B!


The most economically important compound of boron is sodium tetraborate decahydrate Na2B4O7 · 10H2O, or borax, used for insulating fiberglass and sodium perborate bleach. Boric acid is an important compound used in textile products.  Compounds of boron are used in organic synthesis, in the manufacture of a particular type of glasses, and as wood preservatives. Boron filaments are used for advanced aerospace structures, due to their high-strength and light weight.

An early use of borax was to make perborate, the beaching agent once widely used in household detergents.

Boron compound also came into the average home in the guise of food preservatives, especially for margarine and fish.



Boron is not present in nature in elemental form. It is found combined in borax, boric acid, kernite, ulexite, colemanite and borates. Vulcanic spring waters sometime contains boric acids.
Borates are mined in US, Tibet, Chile and Turkey, with world production being about 2 million tonnes per year.


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Why Oxygen Supply is Needed in Remote Areas

Foxolution SE provides the ability to supply medical oxygen and nitrogen to remote areas.  But why is this such a vital thing?  In this blog article by Kevin Watkins, he explores the reasons for this – especially during the Covid-19 crisis.


Hospital oxygen concentrator - Foxolution Systems Engineering CC - Why Oxygen Supply is Needed in Remote Areas


Oxygen for all, during COVID-19 (coronavirus) and beyond

Source –

“In his first interview after leaving the hospital treating him for COVID-19 (coronavirus), UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson recounted the desperate moments when his life hung in the balance. “I was going through liters and liters of oxygen,” he recalled, adding about his recovery: “I was a very lucky man.”

It was a comment that highlighted the critical importance of medical oxygen. Without it, the Prime Minister’s brush with COVID-19 might have had a tragically different ending.

Oxygen is all around us in the air we breathe. Perhaps that’s why we sometimes forget it is also a life-saving essential medicine. Medical oxygen is a key treatment for severe pneumonia, malaria, sepsis and meningitis. Yet it is seldom available to the children and mothers whose lives are at risk. Where it is available, it is often unaffordable to the poorest and most disadvantaged.

Media coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic has created a moral panic over shortages of ventilators available in Africa. Those shortages are real. But increasing the stock of ventilators without fixing oxygen systems is a prescription for avoidable fatalities. Medical oxygen is the primary treatment for the majority of patients who are suffering severe COVID-19 symptoms. That’s why the WHO recommends that all countries focus on the development of medical oxygen systems and provision of pulse oximeters to measure blood oxygen levels.

Following that advice will help build a more equitable health system, one that’s equipped to respond not only to the viral pneumonia threatening adults with COVID-19, but also to the viral and bacterial pneumonia that is now the biggest infectious killer of children. This is a disease that claims over 800,000 young lives every year. Never mind ventilators: many of these children are left fighting for breath without even the most basic oxygen therapy. Yet as the Every Breath Counts Coalition points out, the COVID-19 response so far has largely overlooked the importance of medical oxygen supply and diagnostic tools for identifying hypoxemia.

Last year I visited rural health clinics and hospitals across northwest Nigeria, an area marked by endemic malnutrition, childhood pneumonia and malaria. Medical oxygen was almost entirely absent from health facilities. Doctors in one referral hospital told me they were regularly forced to ration access to oxygen between children in desperate need, based on judgments about their survival prospects. And this is a microcosm of experience across the poorest countries. Modeling suggests that improving oxygen access could avert 148,000 deaths of children under 5 each year in the 15 countries that have the highest pneumonia burden. So why are we losing so many lives that could be saved?

Medical oxygen supplies starkly illustrate health inequalities between and within countries. The UK hospital that treated Boris Johnson for COVID-19 is supplied with industrial quantities of high-grade liquid oxygen, with storage facilities linked to patients through miles of piping and complex valves. Bulk purchases reduce costs. Meanwhile, public financing of the National Health Service means patients receive oxygen free of charge.

Contrast this with the situation in poorer countries. Most hospitals are supplied by cylinders filled at industrial gas plants and transported by truck. Patients are typically charged directly for the cost of refilling. Treating a child with severe pneumonia over 3-4 days can require anything from 4,000 to 8,000 cubic liters of oxygen at a cost of $40-60. For the poorest households, that prospective bill represents a huge barrier to treatment – if the child is able to get to a hospital with oxygen at all.

The challenge is to increase the supply of medical oxygen while reducing cost so that it’s accessible where it’s needed most, free at the point of use. It will take increased investment and commitment to put oxygen at the center of strategies for universal health coverage.

Market management can help. Pooling demand can help generate economies of scale and drive down prices. In Kenya, a social enterprise, Hewa Tele, has established three oxygen production plants, each serving a cluster of hospitals. The plants have cut hospital purchase costs by around one-third.

Similar models are being developed in other countries. In Ethiopia, a coalition of companies, philanthropic foundations, UN agencies, and not-for-profit actors – the United4Oxygen Alliance – is working with the government to implement Africa’s first national plan for universal access to medical oxygen.

The opportunities are vast, but innovation is needed to reach the most vulnerable. One initiative – FREO2 – has developed ingenious technologies to concentrate and store oxygen in health centers that lack electricity. Investing in the maintenance of concentrators and adapting them for use across 4-5 children through simple plastic tubing is another low-tech solution that can save lives.

Medical oxygen has been recognized as an essential medicine for well over a century. Yet it remains beyond the reach of desperately vulnerable children. It has not figured in the priorities of the global development organizations. There are no major global campaigns or disease days to galvanize action on medical oxygen, despite the suffering caused by its absence of supply. The fact that the poorest and most disadvantaged children bear the brunt of the medical oxygen deficit adds to the urgency for action.

COVID-19 is a public health crisis without parallel in recent history. But it is also an opportunity to turn the spotlight on medical oxygen as one of the defining health equity issues of our age. Universal access to oxygen is not a vague aspiration. We lack neither the finance nor the technology. The need is self-evident. What has been missing is political leadership and international cooperation – and those are deficits we can fix.”



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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s learn about INDIUM!


Let's learn about INDIUM - In!


Indium is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. Indium is the softest metal that is not an alkali metal. It is a silvery-white metal that resembles tin in appearance. It is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth’s crust. Indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium, but lower than lithium and tin. Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium, and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties. Indium was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter by spectroscopic methods. They named it for the indigo blue line in its spectrum. Indium was isolated the next year.


lets learn.. lithium


Indium is a minor component in zinc sulfide ores and is produced as a byproduct of zinc refinement. It is most notably used in the semiconductor industry, in low-melting-point metal alloys such as solders, in soft-metal high-vacuum seals, and in the production of transparent conductive coatings of indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass. Indium is considered a technology-critical element.


lets learn.. lithium


Indium has no biological role. Its compounds are toxic when injected into the bloodstream. Most occupational exposure is through ingestion, from which indium compounds are not absorbed well, and inhalation, from which they are moderately absorbed.


lets learn.. lithium


Indium is a silvery-white, highly ductile post-transition metal with a bright luster. It is so soft (Mohs hardness 1.2) that like sodium, it can be cut with a knife. It also leaves a visible line on paper. It is a member of group 13 on the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between its vertical neighbours gallium and thallium. Like tin, a high-pitched cry is heard when indium is bent – a crackling sound due to crystal twinning.  Like gallium, indium is able to wet glass. Like both, indium has a low melting point, 156.60 °C (313.88 °F); higher than its lighter homologue, gallium, but lower than its heavier homologue, thallium, and lower than tin.  The boiling point is 2072 °C (3762 °F), higher than that of thallium, but lower than gallium, conversely to the general trend of melting points, but similarly to the trends down the other post-transition metal groups because of the weakness of the metallic bonding with few electrons delocalized.


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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s learn about ZIRCONIUM!

Let's learn about ZIRCONIUM - Zr!


Zirconium is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. The name zirconium is taken from the name of the mineral zircon (the word is related to Persian zargun (zircon; zar-gun, “gold-like” or “as gold”)), the most important source of zirconium.It is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal that closely resembles hafnium and, to a lesser extent, titanium. Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although small amounts are used as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion. Zirconium forms a variety of inorganic and organometallic compounds such as zirconium dioxide and zirconocene dichloride, respectively. Five isotopes occur naturally, three of which are stable. Zirconium compounds have no known biological role.



Zirconium is a lustrous, greyish-white, soft, ductile, malleable metal that is solid at room temperature, though it is hard and brittle at lesser purities. In powder form, zirconium is highly flammable, but the solid form is much less prone to ignition. Zirconium is highly resistant to corrosion by alkalis, acids, salt water and other agents. However, it will dissolve in hydrochloric and sulfuric acid, especially when fluorine is present. Alloys with zinc are magnetic at less than 35 K.



The melting point of zirconium is 1855 °C (3371 °F), and the boiling point is 4371 °C (7900 °F).  Zirconium has an electronegativity of 1.33 on the Pauling scale. Of the elements within the d-block with known electronegativities, zirconium has the fifth lowest electronegativity after hafnium, yttrium, lanthanum, and actinium.



At room temperature zirconium exhibits a hexagonally close-packed crystal structure, α-Zr, which changes to β-Zr, a body-centered cubic crystal structure, at 863 °C. Zirconium exists in the β-phase until the melting point.


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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s learn about POTASSIUM!


Let's learn about............ POTASSIUM - K!


Potassium is a chemical element with the symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19. Potassium is a silvery-white metal that is soft enough to be cut with a knife with little force.[5] Potassium metal reacts rapidly with atmospheric oxygen to form flaky white potassium peroxide in only seconds of exposure. It was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives. In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals, all of which have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, that is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge – a cation, that combines with anions to form salts. Potassium in nature occurs only in ionic salts. Elemental potassium reacts vigorously with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite hydrogen emitted in the reaction, and burning with a lilac-colored flame. It is found dissolved in sea water (which is 0.04% potassium by weight[6][7]), and occurs in many minerals such as orthoclase, a common constituent of granites and other igneous rocks.


Let's learn about............ POTASSIUM!


Potassium is chemically very similar to sodium, the previous element in group 1 of the periodic table. They have a similar first ionization energy, which allows for each atom to give up its sole outer electron. It was suspected in 1702 that they were distinct elements that combine with the same anions to make similar salts,[8] and was proven in 1807 using electrolysis. Naturally occurring potassium is composed of three isotopes, of which 40
K is radioactive. Traces of 40 K are found in all potassium, and it is the most common radioisotope in the human body.


Let's learn about............ POTASSIUM!


Potassium ions are vital for the functioning of all living cells. The transfer of potassium ions across nerve cell membranes is necessary for normal nerve transmission; potassium deficiency and excess can each result in numerous signs and symptoms, including an abnormal heart rhythm and various electrocardiographic abnormalities. Fresh fruits and vegetables are good dietary sources of potassium. The body responds to the influx of dietary potassium, which raises serum potassium levels, with a shift of potassium from outside to inside cells and an increase in potassium excretion by the kidneys.


Let's learn about............ POTASSIUM!


Most industrial applications of potassium exploit the high solubility in water of potassium compounds, such as potassium soaps. Heavy crop production rapidly depletes the soil of potassium, and this can be remedied with agricultural fertilizers containing potassium, accounting for 95% of global potassium chemical production.[9]


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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s learn about ALUMINIUM!


Let's learn about...... ALUMINIUM!


Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common metals, at approximately one third that of steel. It has a great affinity towards oxygen, and forms a protective layer of oxide on the surface when exposed to air. Aluminium visually resembles silver, both in its color and in its great ability to reflect light. It is soft, non-magnetic and ductile. It has one stable isotope, 27Al; this isotope is very common, making aluminium the twelfth most common element in the Universe. The radioactivity of 26Al is used in radiodating.


Let's learn about...... ALUMINIUM!


Chemically, aluminium is a weak metal in the boron group; as it is common for the group, aluminium forms compounds primarily in the +3 oxidation state. The aluminium cation Al3+ is small and highly charged; as such, it is polarizing, and bonds aluminium forms tend towards covalency. The strong affinity towards oxygen leads to aluminium’s common association with oxygen in nature in the form of oxides; for this reason, aluminium is found on Earth primarily in rocks in the crust, where it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon, rather than in the mantle, and virtually never as the free metal.


Let's learn about...... ALUMINIUM!


The discovery of aluminium was announced in 1825 by Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted. The first industrial production of aluminium was initiated by French chemist Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville in 1856. Aluminium became much more available to the public with the Hall–Héroult process developed independently by French engineer Paul Héroult and American engineer Charles Martin Hall in 1886, and the mass production of aluminium led to its extensive use in industry and everyday life. In World Wars I and II, aluminium was a crucial strategic resource for aviation. In 1954, aluminium became the most produced non-ferrous metal, surpassing copper. In the 21st century, most aluminium was consumed in transportation, engineering, construction, and packaging in the United States, Western Europe, and Japan.


Let's learn about...... ALUMINIUM - Al!


Despite its prevalence in the environment, no living organism is known to use aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of the abundance of these salts, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, and studies continue.


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