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Let’s learn about CAESIUM!

Let's learn about CAESIUM!

 

Caesium is a chemical element with the symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-golden alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 °C (83.3 °F), which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature.  It has physical and chemical properties similar to those of rubidium and potassium. The most reactive of all metals, it is pyrophoric and reacts with water even at −116 °C (−177 °F). It is the least electronegative element, with a value of 0.79 on the Pauling scale. It has only one stable isotope, caesium-133. Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially caesium-137, a fission product, are extracted from waste produced by nuclear reactors.

The metal is characterised by a spectrum containing two bright lines in the blue (accounting for its name). It is silvery gold, soft, and ductile. It is the most electropositive and most alkaline element. Cesium, gallium, and mercury are the only three metals that are liquid at or around room temperature. Cesium reacts explosively with cold water, and reacts with ice at temperatures above -116°C. Cesium hydroxide is a strong base and attacks glass. Cesium reacts with the halogens to form a fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide. Cesium metal oxidized rapidly when exposed to the air and can form the dangerous superoxide on its surface.

It is used in industry as a catalyst promoter, boosting the performance of other metal oxides in the capacity and for the hydrogenation of organic compounds. Cesium nitrate is used to make optical glasses. It is sometimes used to remove traces of oxygen from the vacuum tubes and from light bulbs. Cesium salts are used to strenght various types of glass. The chloride is used in photoelectric cells, in optical instruments, and in increasing the sensitivity of electron tubes. Cesium is used in atomic clocks and more recently in ion propulsion systems.

 

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Humans may be exposed to cesium by breathing, drinking or eating. In air the levels of cesium are generally low, but radioactive cesium has been detected at some level in surface water and in many types of foods.

The amount of cesium in foods and drinks depends upon the emission of radioactive cesium through nuclear power plants, mainly through accidents. These accidents have not occurred since the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. People that work in the nuclear power industry may be exposed to higher levels of cesium, but many precautionary measurements can be taken to prevent this.

Caesium was almost discovered by Carl Plattner in 1846 when he investigated the mineral pollucite (caesium aluminium silicate). He could only account for 93% of the elements it contained, but then ran out of material to analyse. (It was later realised that he mistook the caesium for sodium and potassium.)

The most common use for caesium compounds is as a drilling fluid. They are also used to make special optical glass, as a catalyst promoter, in vacuum tubes and in radiation monitoring equipment.

One of its most important uses is in the ‘caesium clock’ (atomic clock). These clocks are a vital part of the internetand mobile phone networks, as well as Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. They give the standard measure of time: the electron resonance frequency of the caesium atom is 9,192,631,770 cycles per second. Some caesium clocks are accurate to 1 second in 15 million years.

 

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Let’s learn about RUBIDIUM!

 

Rubidium (Rb), chemical element of Group 1 (Ia) in the periodic table, the alkali metal group. It is the second most reactive metal. Rubidium is the chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37. It is a very soft, silvery-white metal in the alkali metal group. Rubidium metal shares similarities to potassium metal and caesium metal in physical appearance, softness and conductivity

This element was discovered (1861) spectroscopically by German scientists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff and named after the two prominent red lines of its spectrum. Rubidium and cesium often occur together in nature. Rubidium, however, is more widely scattered and seldom forms a natural mineral; it is found only as an impurity in other minerals, ranging in content up to 5 percent in such minerals as lepidolite, pollucite, and carnallite. Brine samples have also been analyzed that contain up to 6 parts per million of rubidium.

 

 

It is difficult to handle because it ignites spontaneously in air, and it reacts violently with water to yield a solution of rubidium hydroxide (RbOH) and hydrogen, which bursts into flames; rubidium is therefore kept in dry mineral oil or an atmosphere of hydrogen.

Natural rubidium makes up about 0.01 percent of Earth’s crust; it exists as a mixture of two isotopes: rubidium-85 (72.15 percent) and the radioactive rubidium-87 (27.85 percent), which emits beta rays with a half-life of about 6 × 1011 years. A large number of radioactive isotopes have been artificially prepared, from rubidium-79 to rubidium-95.

 

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Let’s learn about MAGNESIUM!

 

 

Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure.

This element is produced in large, aging stars from the sequential addition of three helium nuclei to a carbon nucleus. When such stars explode as supernovas, much of the magnesium is expelled into the interstellar medium where it may recycle into new star systems. It is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust and the fourth most common element in the Earth (after iron, oxygen and silicon), making up 13% of the planet’s mass and a large fraction of the planet’s mantle. It is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater, after sodium and chlorine.

Magnesium is a nutrient that the body needs to stay healthy. It is important for many processes in the body, including regulating muscle and nerve function, blood sugar levels, and blood pressure and making protein, bone, and DNA.

Historically, magnesium was one of the main aerospace construction metals and was used for German military aircraft as early as World War I and extensively for German aircraft in World War II. The Germans coined the name “Elektron” for magnesium alloy, a term which is still used today. In the commercial aerospace industry, magnesium was generally restricted to engine-related components, due to fire and corrosion hazards. Magnesium alloy use in aerospace is increasing in the 21st century, driven by the importance of fuel economy.

In the form of thin ribbons, magnesium is used to purify solvents; for example, preparing super-dry ethanol.

 

 

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Let’s learn about HYDROGEN!

Let's learn about HYDROGEN!

 

Hydrogen (H) is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, flammable gaseous substance that is the simplest member of the family of chemical elements. The H atom has a nucleus consisting of a proton bearing one unit of positive electrical charge; an electron, bearing one unit of negative electrical charge, is also associated with this nucleus. Under ordinary conditions, H gas is a loose aggregation of hydrogen molecules, each consisting of a pair of atoms, a diatomic molecule, H2. The earliest known important chemical property of hydrogen is that it burns with oxygen to form water, H2O; indeed, the name hydrogen is derived from Greek words meaning “maker of water.”

Hydrogen is the chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 1.008, it is the lightest element in the periodic table. It is the most abundant chemical substance in the universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.

 

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Hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to generate electricity, or power and heat. Today, it is most commonly used in petroleum refining and fertilizer production, while transportation and utilities are emerging markets. It is a clean alternative to methane, also known as natural gas. It’s the most abundant chemical element, estimated to contribute 75% of the mass of the universe.

What is the difference between blue and green hydrogen? Blue hydrogen is produced from non-renewable energy sources, by using one of two primary methods. Steam methane reformation is the most common method for producing bulk hydrogen and accounts for most of the world’s production. This method uses a reformer, which reacts steam at a high temperature and pressure with methane and a nickel catalyst to form hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

 

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Let’s Learn About BERYLLIUM!

Let's Learn About BERYLLIUM!

 

Beryllium is a silvery-white metal. It is relatively soft and has a low density.
Named after beryllos, the Greek name for the mineral beryl, the element was originally known as glucinium — from Greek glykys, meaning “sweet” — to reflect its characteristic taste. But the chemists who discovered this unique property of beryllium also found that it is in fact highly toxic and should therefore never be tasted,
It is used in alloys with copper or nickel to make gyroscopes, springs, electrical contacts, spot-welding electrodes and non-sparking tools. Mixing beryllium with these metals increases their electrical and thermal conductivity.

Atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus): 4
Atomic symbol (on the Periodic Table of the Elements): Be
Atomic weight (average mass of the atom): 9.012182
Density: 1.85 grams per cubic centimeter
Phase at room temperature: Solid
Melting point: 2,348.6 degrees Fahrenheit (1,287 degrees Celsius)
Boiling point: 4,479.8 F (2,471 C)
Number of isotopes (atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons): 12, including one stable isotope.
Most common isotopes: 9Be (Natural abundance: 100 percent)

 

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Beryllium is used in gears and cogs particularly in the aviation industry.  Other beryllium alloys are used as structural materials for high-speed aircraft, missiles, spacecraft and communication satellites. It is relatively transparent to X-rays so ultra-thin beryllium foil is finding use in X-ray lithography. It is also used in nuclear reactors as a reflector or moderator of neutrons.

The oxide has a very high melting point making it useful in nuclear work as well as having ceramic applications.

Beryllium and its compounds are toxic and carcinogenic. If beryllium dust or fumes are inhaled, it can lead to an incurable inflammation of the lungs called berylliosis.

 

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Let’s Learn About TUNGSTEN!

 

Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with the symbol W and atomic number 74. Tungsten is a rare metal found naturally on Earth almost only as compounds with other elements. It was identified as a new element in 1781 and first (separated far from others) as a metal in 1783. Its important ores include tungsten, scheelite, and wolframite, the last lending the element its alternate name.

The free element is amazing and interesting for its strength and health, especially the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the elements discovered, melting at 3,422 °C (6,192 °F; 3,695 K) (carbon amazings rather than melts at (related to the air outside) pressure). It also has the highest boiling point, at 5,930 °C (10,710 °F; 6,200 K).[10] Its density is 19.25 grams per cubic centimetre, similar with that of uranium and gold, and much higher (about 1.7 times) than that of lead. Polycrystalline tungsten is a naturally easily broken and hard material (under standard conditions, when uncombined), making it very hard to work. However, total/totally/with nothing else mixed in single-(very clear/related to things that look like little pieces of clear glass) tungsten is more (able to be flattened or drawn into wire) and can be cut with a hard-steel hacksaw.

 

Californium is one of the few transuranium elements that have practical uses. Most of these applications use (for selfish reasons) property of certain isotopes of californium to give off neutrons. For example, californium can be used to help start up nuclear reactors, and it is employed as a source of neutrons when studying materials using neutron diffraction and neutron spectroscopy. Californium can also be used in nuclear (creation/combination) of higher mass elements; oganesson (element 118) was made/created by (overloading and overwhelming with bullets, questions, requests, etc) californium-249 atoms with (silvery metal/important nutrient)-48 ions. Users of californium must take into account (related to X-rays)al concerns and the element’s ability to disrupt the (creation and construction/ group of objects) of red blood cells by bioaccumulating in extremely skinny/skeleton-related tissue.

Californium was first made/created at the University of California Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, by the physics (people who work to find information) Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg on or about February 9, 1950. It was the sixth transuranium element to be discovered; the team announced its discovery on March 17, 1950.

 

 

Tungsten happens in many mixtures (of metals), which have many uses, including glowing light bulb thin threads, X-ray tubes, electrodes in gas tungsten arc welding, superalloys, and radiation shielding. Tungsten’s hardness and high density make it good for military uses in penetrating (things thrown or fired at high speeds). Tungsten compounds are often used as industrial helping forces.

Tungsten is the only metal in the third change (from one thing to another) series that is known to happen in biomolecules, being found in a few (group of similar living things) of bacteria and archaea. However, tungsten interferes with molybdenum and copper (chemically processing and using food) and is somewhat poisonous to most forms of animal life.

 

 

In 1781, Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered that a new acid, tungstic acid, could be made from scheelite (at the time tungsten). Scheele and Torbern Bergman suggested that it might be possible to get a new metal by reducing this acid. In 1783, Jose and Fausto Elhuyar found an acid made from wolframite that was identical to tungstic acid. Later that year, at the Royal Basque (community of people/all good people in the world) in the town of Bergara, Spain, the brothers succeeded in (separating far from others) tungsten by reduction of this acid with charcoal, and they are credited with the discovery of the element (they called it “wolfram” or “volfram”).

The (related to a plan to reach a goal) value of tungsten came to (see/hear/become aware of) in the early 20th century. British people in charge acted in 1912 to free the Carrock mine from the German owned Cumbrian Mining Company and, during World War I, restrict German access in other places. In World War II, tungsten played a more a big role in background political dealings. Portugal, as the main (related to Europe) source of the element, was put under pressure from both sides, because of its deposits of wolframite ore at Panasqueira. Tungsten’s desirable properties such as resistance to high temperatures, its hardness and density, and its strengthening of mixtures (of metals) made it an important raw material for the arms industry, both as a voter/part of weapons and equipment and employed in production itself, e.g., in tungsten carbide cutting tools for machining steel. Now tungsten is used in many more applications such as aircraft & motorsport (weight that steadies a ship, aircraft, etc.) weights, darts, anti-vibration tooling, and sporting equipment.

 

 

The name “tungsten” (which means “heavy stone” in Swedish) is used in English, French, and many other languages as the name of the element, but not in the Nordic countries. “Tungsten” was the old Swedish name for the mineral scheelite. “Wolfram” (or “volfram”) is used in most (related to Europe) (especially Germanic, Spanish and Slavic) languages and is taken from the mineral wolframite, which is the origin of the chemical symbol W. The name “wolframite” is taken from German “wolf rahm” (“wolf soot” or “wolf cream”), the name given to tungsten by Johan Gottschalk Wallerius in 1747. This, in turn, comes from Latin “lupi spuma”, the name Georg Agricola used for the element in 1546, which translates into English as “wolf’s froth” and is a reference to the large amounts of tin used/ate/drank/destroyed by the mineral during its extraction.

The world’s reserves of tungsten are 3,200,000 tonnes; they are mostly located in China (1,800,000 t), Canada (290,000 t),[48] Russia (160,000 t), Vietnam (95,000 t) and Bolivia. As of 2017, China, Vietnam and Russia are the leading suppliers with 79,000, 7,200 and 3,100 tonnes, (match up each pair of items in order). Canada had stopped production in late 2015 due to the closure of its only tungsten mine. Meanwhile, Vietnam had increased (a lot) its output in the 2010s, because of the major optimization of its domestic making better/making more pure operations, and ran faster than Russia and Bolivia.

 

 

China remains the world’s leader not only in production, but also in export and consumption of tungsten products. Tungsten production is slowly increasing outside China because of the rising demand. Meanwhile, its supply by China is strictly controlled by the Chinese Government, which fights illegal mining and too much/too many pollution starting from mining and making better/making more pure processes.

Tungsten is carefully thought about/believed to be a conflict mineral due to the (dishonest and wrong) mining practices watched/followed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.There is a large deposit of tungsten ore on the edge of Dartmoor in the United Kingdom, which was taken advantage of during World War I and World War II as the Hemerdon Mine. Following increases in tungsten prices, this mine was reactivated in 2014,[53] but stopped activities in 2018.

 

 

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Let’s Learn About CALIFORNIUM!

 

 

Californium is a radioactive chemical element with the symbol Cf and atomic number 98. The element was first created in 1950 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (then the University of California Radiation Laboratory), by (overloading and overwhelming with bullets, questions, requests, etc) curium with alpha particles (helium-4 ions). It is an actinide element, the sixth transuranium element to be made/created, and has the second-highest atomic mass of all the elements that have been produced in amounts large enough to see with the (without receiving help) eye (after einsteinium). The element was named after the university and the U.S. state of California.

Two (very clear/related to things that look like little pieces of clear glass) forms exist for californium under (usual/ commonly and regular/ healthy) pressure: one above and one below 900 °C (1,650 °F). A third form exists at high pressure. Californium slowly discolors and ruins in air at room temperature. Compounds of californium are ruled-over by the +3 oxidation state. The most stable of californium’s twenty known isotopes is californium-251, which has a half-life of 898 years. This short half-life means the element is not found in significant amounts in the Earth’s crust.[a] Californium-252, with a half-life of about 2.645 years, is the most common isotope used and is produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States and the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors in Russia.

 

Californium is one of the few transuranium elements that have practical uses. Most of these applications use (for selfish reasons) property of certain isotopes of californium to give off neutrons. For example, californium can be used to help start up nuclear reactors, and it is employed as a source of neutrons when studying materials using neutron diffraction and neutron spectroscopy. Californium can also be used in nuclear (creation/combination) of higher mass elements; oganesson (element 118) was made/created by (overloading and overwhelming with bullets, questions, requests, etc) californium-249 atoms with (silvery metal/important nutrient)-48 ions. Users of californium must take into account (related to X-rays)al concerns and the element’s ability to disrupt the (creation and construction/ group of objects) of red blood cells by bioaccumulating in extremely skinny/skeleton-related tissue.

Californium was first made/created at the University of California Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, by the physics (people who work to find information) Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg on or about February 9, 1950. It was the sixth transuranium element to be discovered; the team announced its discovery on March 17, 1950.

 

 

To identify and separate out the element, ion exchange and adsorsion methods were done/tried. Only about 5,000 atoms of californium were produced in this experiment, and these atoms had a half-life of 44 minutes.

The discoverers named the new element after the university and the state. This was a break from the convention used for elements 95 to 97, which drew inspiration from how the elements directly above them in the list of all elements were named. However, the element directly above element 98 in the list of all elements, dysprosium, has a name that simply means “hard to get at” so the (people who work to find information) decided to set aside the informal (common way of putting a name on something). They added that “the best we can do is to point out [that] … searchers a century ago found it very hard to get to California.”

Weighable amounts of californium were first produced by the exposure to radiation of plutonium targets at the Materials Testing Reactor at the National Reactor Testing Station in eastern Idaho; and these findings were reported in 1954. The high unplanned (and sudden) fission rate of californium-252 was watched/followed in these samples. The first experiment with californium in (focused one’s effort/increased/mainly studied) form happened in 1958. The isotopes californium-249 to californium-252 were (separated far from others) that same year from a sample of plutonium-239 that had been exposed to radiation with neutrons in a nuclear reactor for five years. Two years later, in 1960, Burris Cunningham and James Wallman of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory of the University of California created the first californium compounds–californium trichloride, californium oxychloride, and californium oxide–by treating californium with steam and hydrochloric acid.

 

 

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, started producing small batches of californium in the 1960s. By 1995, the HFIR in name produced 500 milligrams (0.018 oz) of californium every year. Plutonium supplied by the United Kingdom to the United States under the 1958 US-UK Back and forth/equal between people Defence Agreement was used for californium production.

The Atomic Energy Commission sold californium-252 to industrial and (related to school and learning) customers in the early 1970s for $10 per microgram[26] and an average of 150 mg (0.0053 oz) of californium-252 were shipped each year from 1970 to 1990. Californium metal was first prepared in 1974 by Haire and Baybarz who reduced californium(III) oxide with lanthanum metal to get microgram amounts of sub-micrometer thick films.

 

 

Traces of californium can be found near facilities that use the element in mineral prospecting and in medical treatments. The element is fairly (unable to be dissolved in something) in water, but it sticks well to ordinary soil; and concentrations of it in the soil can be 500 times higher than in the water surrounding the soil particles.

Traces of californium can be found near facilities that use the element in mineral prospecting and in medical treatments. The element is fairly (unable to be dissolved in something) in water, but it sticks well to ordinary soil; and concentrations of it in the soil can be 500 times higher than in the water surrounding the soil particles.

 

 

Results/argument from (related to the air outside) nuclear testing before 1980 added/gave a small amount of californium to the health of the Earth/the surrounding conditions. Californium isotopes with mass numbers 249, 252, 253, and 254 have been watched/followed in the radioactive dust collected from the air after a nuclear explosion. Californium is not a major radionuclide at United States Department of Energy (something given to future people) places/locations since it was not produced in large amounts.

Californium was once believed to be produced in supernovas, as their (rotted, inferior, or ruined state) matches the 60-day half-life of 254Cf. However, later studies did not (show or prove) any californium spectra, and supernova light curves are now thought to follow the (rotted, inferior, or ruined state) of nickel-56.

The transuranic elements from (element) to fermium, including californium, happened naturally in the natural nuclear fission reactor at Oklo, but no longer do so.

 

 

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Let’s Learn About TECHNETIUM!

 

 

Technetium is a chemical element with the symbol Tc and atomic number 43. It is the lightest element whose isotopes are all radioactive, none of which is stable other than the fully ionized state of 97Tc. Nearly all available technetium is produced as a synthetic element. Naturally happening technetium is an unplanned quick fission product in uranium ore and thorium ore, the most common source, or the product of neutron take and hold to prevent release in molybdenum ores. The silvery gray, transparent change metamorphising metal lies between manganese and rhenium in group 7 of the list of all elements, and its chemical properties are halfway between those of both beside elements. The most common naturally happening isotope is 99Tc, in traces only.

Many of technetium’s properties had been (described a possible future event) by Dmitri Mendeleev before it was discovered. Mendeleev noted a gap in his list of all elements and gave the undiscovered element the temporary name ekamanganese (Em). In 1937, technetium (specifically the technetium-97 isotope) became the first mostly (not made by nature/fake) element to be produced, because of this its name (from the Greek τεχνητός, meaning “Craft, Art or (not made by nature/fake)”, + -ium).

 

One short-lived (ray of invisible energy)-sending out nuclear isomer, technetium-99m, is used in nuclear medicine for a wide variety of tests, such as bone cancer (identifications of diseases or problems, or their causes). The ground state of the nuclide technetium-99 is used as a gamma-ray-free source of beta particles. Long-lived technetium isotopes produced commercially are (things produced along with something else) of the fission of uranium-235 in nuclear reactors and are (pulled out or taken from something else) from nuclear fuel rods. Because no isotope of technetium has a half-life longer than 4.21 million years (technetium-97), the 1952 detection of technetium in red giants helped to prove that stars can produce heavier elements.

From the 1860s through 1871, early forms of the list of all elements proposed by Dmitri Mendeleev contained a gap between molybdenum (element 42) and ruthenium (element 44). In 1871, Mendeleev (described a possible future event) this missing element would occupy the empty place below manganese and have almost the same chemical properties. Mendeleev gave it the temporary name ekamanganese (from eka-, the Withoutkrit word for one) because the (described a possible future event) element was one place down from the known element manganese.

 

 

The discovery of element 43 was finally confirmed in a 1937 experiment at the University of Palermo in Sicily by Carlo Perrier and Emilio Segre.[14] In mid-1936, Segre visited the United States, first Columbia University in New York and then the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. He convinced cyclotron inventor Ernest Lawrence to let him take back some thrown-out cyclotron parts that had become radioactive. Lawrence mailed him a molybdenum foil that had been part of the (object that pushes aside the flow of something) in the cyclotron.

Segre (joined the military) his fellow worker Perrier to attempt to prove, through (serving to compare two or more things) chemistry, that the molybdenum activity was in fact from an element with the atomic number 43. In 1937, th
ey succeeded in (separating far from others) the isotopes technetium-95m and technetium-97. University of Palermo (people in charge of something) wanted them to name their discovery “panormium”, after the Latin name for Palermo, Panormus. In 1947 element 43 was named after the Greek word τεχνητός, meaning “(not made by nature/fake)”, since it was the first element to be (not in a natural way/in a fake way) produced. Segre returned to Berkeley and met Glenn T. Seaborg. They (separated far from others) the metastable isotope technetium-99m, which is now used in some ten million medical disease-identifying procedures every year.

 

 

In 1952, the star expert-related Paul W. Merrill in California detected the (related to ghosts or the colors of the rainbow) signature of technetium (specifically wavelengths of 403.1 nm, 423.8 nm, 426.2 nm, and 429.7 nm) in light from S-type red giants. The stars were near the end of their lives but were rich in the short-lived element, which pointed to/showed that it was being produced in the stars by nuclear reactions. That (event(s) or object(s) that prove something) helped (or increased) the educated guess that heavier elements are the product of (the act of creating atoms) in stars. More (not very long ago), such (instances of watching, noticing, or making statements) gave/given (event(s) or object(s) that prove something) that elements are formed by neutron take and hold (to prevent release) in the s-process.

Since that discovery, there have been many searches in (on land) materials for natural sources of technetium. In 1962, technetium-99 was (far apart from others) and identified in pitchblende from the Belgian Congo in very small amounts (about 0.2 ng/kg), where it starts as an unplanned (and sudden) fission product of uranium-238. The Oklo natural nuclear fission reactor contains (event(s) or object(s) that prove something) that big amounts of technetium-99 were produced and have since (rotted/became ruined or worse) into ruthenium-99.

 

 

Technetium is a silvery-gray radioactive metal with an appearance almost the same as platinum, commonly received/got as a gray powder. The crystal structure of the bulk (completely/complete, with nothing else mixed in) metal is six-sided close-packed. The crystal structure of the nanodisperse (completely/complete, with nothing else mixed in) metal is cubic. Nanodisperse technetium does not have a split NMR spectrum, while six-sided bulk technetium has the Tc-99-NMR spectrum split in 9 satellites. Atomic technetium has (typical and expected) emission lines at wavelengths of 363.3 nm, 403.1 nm, 426.2 nm, 429.7 nm, and 485.3 nm.

The metal form is (a) little paramagnetic, meaning its magnetic dipoles match up/make even with external magnetic fields, but will assume random (directions of pointing) once the field is removed. Pure, metallic, single-crystal technetium becomes a type-II superconductor at temperatures below 7.46 K. Below this temperature, technetium has a very high magnetic penetration depth, greater than any other element except niobium.

 

 

Technetium happens naturally in the Earth’s crust in minute concentrations of about 0.003 parts per trillion. Technetium is so rare because the half-lives of 97Tc and 98Tc are only 4.2 million years. More than a thousand of such periods have passed since the (creation and construction/ group of objects) of the Earth, so the chance for the survival of even one atom of very old (from the beginning of time) technetium is effectively zero. However, small amounts exist as unplanned (and sudden) fission products in uranium ores. A kilogram of uranium contains a guessed (number) 1 nanogram (10aˆ’9 g) equal to ten trillion atoms of technetium. Some red giant stars with the (related to ghosts or the colors of the rainbow) types S-, M-, and N contain a (related to ghosts or the colors of the rainbow) (mental concentration/picking up of a liquid) line pointing to/showing the presence of technetium. These red-giants are known informally as technetium stars.

Technetium-99m (“m” points to/shows that this is a metastable nuclear isomer) is used in radioactive isotope medical tests. For example, Technetium-99m is a radioactive tracer that (X-rays, MRIs, etc.) equipment tracks in the human body. It is well suited to the role because it gives off easily detectable 140 keV (rays of invisible energy), and its half-life is 6.01 hours (meaning that about 94% of it (rots/becomes ruined/gets worse) to technetium-99 in 24 hours). The chemistry of technetium allows it to be bound to a variety of (related to the chemicals in living things) compounds, each of which decides/figures out how it is (chemically processed and used up) and deposited in the body, and this single isotope can be used for a large number of medical tests (to get information). More than 50 common radiopharmaceuticals are based on technetium-99m for imaging and functional studies of the brain, heart muscle, thyroid, lungs, liver, gall bladder, (organs that create urine), skeleton, blood, and tumors.

The longer-lived isotope, technetium-95m with a half-life of 61 days, is used as a radioactive tracer to study the movement of technetium in (the health of the Earth/the surrounding conditions) and in plant and animal systems.

 

 

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Let’s Learn About THORIUM!

 

 

 

Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with the symbol Th and atomic number 90. Thorium is silvery and discolors and ruins black when it is exposed to air, forming thorium dioxide; it is moderately soft, bendable, and has a high melting point. Thorium is an electropositive actinide whose chemistry is ruled-over by the +4 oxidation state; it is quite a catalyst and can catch fire in air when finely divided.

All known thorium isotopes are unstable. The most stable isotope, 232Th, has a half-life of 14.05 billion years, or about the age of the universe; it (rots/becomes ruined/gets worse) very slowly via alpha (rotted, inferior, or ruined state), starting a decay chain named the thorium series that ends at stable 208Pb. On Earth, thorium and uranium are the only significantly radioactive elements that still happen naturally in large amounts as very old (from the beginning of time) elements. Thorium is guessed (number) to be over three times as plentiful as uranium in the Earth’s crust, and is mostly high-quality from monazite sands as a (something produced along with something else) of (pulling out or taking from something else) rare-earth metals.

 

Thorium was discovered in 1828 by the Norwegian inexperienced/low quality mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder. Its first applications were developed in the late 19th century. Thorium’s radioactivity was widely admitted/recognized/responded to during the first at least 20 years of the 20th century. In the second half of the century, thorium was replaced in many uses due to concerns about its radioactivity.

The (firm and steady nature/lasting nature/strength) of the Roman currency relied to a high degree on the supply of silver bars, mostly from Spain, which Roman miners produced on a scale (unlike any other thing in the world) before the discovery of the New World. Reaching a peak production of 200 tonnes per year, a guessed (number) silver stock of 10000 tonnes circulated in the Roman (process of people making, selling, and buying things) in the middle of the second century AD, five to ten times larger than the combined amount of silver available to (very old time in history) Europe and the Abbasid Important Muslim religious leaderate around AD 800.

 

 

Thorium was discovered in 1828 by the Norwegian inexperienced/low quality mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder. Its first applications were developed in the late 19th century. Thorium’s radioactivity was widely admitted/recognized/responded to during the first at least 20 years of the 20th century. In the second half of the century, thorium was replaced in many uses due to concerns about its radioactivity.

Thorium is still being used as a mixture element in TIG welding electrodes but is slowly being replaced in the field with different compositions. It was also material in high-end optics and scientific instrumentation, used in some broadcast vacuum tubes, and as the light source in gas mantles, but these uses have become not important. Some say as a replacement for uranium as nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors, and (more than two, but not a lot of) thorium reactors have been built. Thorium is also used in strengthening magnesium, coating tungsten wire in electrical equipment, controlling the grain size of tungsten in electric lamps, high-temperature red-hot containers, and glasses including camera and scientific (sensitive measuring/recording device) lenses. Other uses for thorium include heat-resistant ceramics, aircraft engines, and in light bulbs.

 

 

In 1828, Morten Thrane Esmark found a black mineral on Løvøya island, Telemark county, Norway. He was a Norwegian priest and inexperienced/low quality mineralogist who studied the minerals in Telemark, where he served as vicar. He commonly sent the most interesting medical samples/examples, such as this one, to his father, Jens Esmark, a noted mineralogist and professor of mineralogy and (the study of rocks) at the Royal Frederick University in Christiania (today called Oslo). The older (person) Esmark decided/figured out that it was not a known mineral and sent a sample to Berzelius for examination. Berzelius decided/figured out that it contained a new element. He published his findings in 1829, having (separated far from others) an impure sample by reducing KThF5 with potassium metal. Berzelius reused the name of the previous supposed element discovery and named the source mineral thorite.

Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who first identified thorium as a new element.  Berzelius made some initial descriptions of the new metal and its chemical compounds: he correctly decided/figured out that the thorium-oxygen mass ratio of thorium oxide was 7.5 (its actual value is close to that, ~7.3), but he assumed the new element was divalent rather than tetravalent, and so calculated that the atomic mass was 7.5 times that of oxygen (120 amu); it is actually 15 times as large. He decided/figured out that thorium was a very electropositive metal, ahead of cerium and behind zirconium in electropositivity. Metallic thorium was (far apart from others) for the first time in 1914 by Dutch small business starters Dirk Lely Jr. and Source of gold, silver, or something valuablewijk Hamburger.

 

 

In the list of all elements published by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, thorium and the rare-earth elements were placed outside the main body of the table, at the end of each up-and-down period after the alkaline earth metals. This reflected the belief at that time that thorium and the rare-earth metals were divalent. With the later recognition that the rare earths were mostly trivalent and thorium was tetravalent, Mendeleev moved cerium and thorium to group IV in 1871, which also contained the modern carbon group (group 14) and titanium group (group 4), because their maximum oxidation state was +4. Cerium was soon removed from the main body of the table and placed in a separate lanthanide series; thorium was left with group 4 as it had almost the same properties to its supposed lighter congeners in that group, such as titanium and zirconium.

While thorium was discovered in 1828 its first application dates only from 1885, when Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach invented the gas mantle, a portable source of light which produces light from the glow of thorium oxide when heated by burning gaseous fuels. Many uses were (after that) found for thorium and its compounds, including ceramics, carbon arc lamps, heat-resistant red-hot containers, and as helping forces for industrial chemical reactions such as the oxidation of strong-smelling chemical to nitric acid.

 

 

Up to the late 19th century, chemists (every single person agreed) that thorium and uranium were the same as hafnium and tungsten; the existence of the lanthanides in the sixth row was carefully thought about/believed to be a one-off lucky accident. In 1892, British chemist Henry Bassett said a second extra-long list of all elements row to change something (to help someone)/take care of someone known and undiscovered elements, (thinking about/when one thinks about) thorium and uranium to be the same as the lanthanides. In 1913, Danish physicist Niels Bohr published a (related to ideas about how things work or why they happen) model of the atom and its electron orbitals, which soon gathered wide acceptance. The model pointed to/showed that the seventh row of the list of all elements should also have f-shells filling before the d-shells that were filled in the change (from one thing to another) elements, like the sixth row with the lanthanides coming before the 5d change (from one thing to another) metals. The existence of a second inner change (from one thing to another) series, in the form of the actinides, was not accepted until (things that are almost the same as other things) with the electron structures of the lanthanides had been established; Bohr suggested that the filling of the 5f orbitals may be delayed to after uranium.

It was only with the discovery of the first transuranic elements, which from plutonium onward have most in control/most common +3 and +4 oxidation states like the lanthanides, that it was (understood/made real/achieved) that the actinides were in fact filling f-orbitals rather than d-orbitals, with the change (from one thing to another)-metal-like chemistry of the early actinides being the exception and not the rule. In 1945, when American physicist Glenn T. Seaborg and his team had discovered the transuranic elements (element) and curium, he proposed the actinide idea, (understanding/making real/achieving) that thorium was the second member of an f-block actinide series the same as the lanthanides, instead of being the heavier congener of hafnium in a fourth d-block row.

 

 

 

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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s Learn About HAFNIUM!

 

Hafnium is a chemical element with the symbol Hf and atomic number 72. A shiny, silvery gray, tetravalent change metamorphosis metal, hafnium chemically looks like zirconium and is found in many zirconium minerals. Its existence was predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, though it was not identified until 1923, by Coster and Hevesy, making it the second-last stable element to be discovered. Hafnium is named after Hafnia, the Latin name for Copenhagen, where it was discovered.

Hafnium is used in thin threads and electrodes. Some (element used to make electronic circuits) lie/construction processes use its oxide for electronic devicess at 45 nm and smaller feature lengths. Some superalloys used for special applications contain hafnium in combination with niobium, titanium, or tungsten.

Hafnium’s large neutron take and hold (to prevent release) cross section makes it a good material for neutron (mental concentration/picking up of a liquid) in control rods in nuclear power plants, but at the same time needs/demands that it be removed from the neutron-clear/open and honest (slow chemical breakdown of something/rust, etc.)-resistant zirconium mixtures (of metals) used in nuclear reactors.

Hafnium is a shiny, silvery, (able to be flattened or drawn into wire) metal that is (slow chemical breakdown of something/rust, etc.)-resistant and chemically almost the same as zirconium[6] (due to its having the same number of valence electrons, being in the same group, but also to relativistic effects; the expected (act of something getting bigger, wider, etc.) of atomic radii from period 5 to 6 is almost exactly cancelled out by the lanthanide contraction). Hafnium changes from its alpha form, a six-sided close-packed (something made of crossed strips of wood, metal, etc.), to its beta form, a body-centered cubic (something made of crossed strips of wood, metal, etc.), at 2388 K.[7] The physical properties of hafnium metal samples are very (much) affected by zirconium (dirt, dust, etc.), especially the nuclear properties, as these two elements are among the hardest to separate because of their chemical (thing that’s almost the same as another thing).

 

A important/famous physical difference between these metals is their density, with zirconium having about one-half the density of hafnium. The most famous nuclear properties of hafnium are its high thermal neutron take and hold (to prevent release) cross section and that the centers (of cells or atoms) of (more than two, but not a lot of) different hafnium isotopes easily soak up (like a towel) two or more neutrons each. In contrast with this, zirconium is practically clear/open and honest to thermal neutrons, and it is commonly used for the metal parts/pieces of nuclear reactors – especially the covering of their nuclear fuel rods.

Hafnium reacts in air to form a (serving or acting to prevent harm) film that stops further (slow chemical breakdown of something/rust, etc.). The metal is not easily attacked by acids but can be oxidized with halogens or it can be burnt in air. Like its sister metal zirconium, finely divided hafnium can (start a fire/catch on fire) in a sudden and unplanned way in air. The metal is resistant to (mainly studied) alkalis.

 

 

The chemistry of hafnium and zirconium is so almost the same that the two cannot be separated on the basis of different/disagreeing chemical reactions. The melting points and boiling points of the compounds and the (ability to be dissolved in something) in solvents are the major differences in the chemistry of these twin elements.

The heavy mineral sands ore deposits of the titanium ores ilmenite and rutile yield most of the mined zirconium, and therefore also most of the hafnium.

Zirconium is a good nuclear fuel-rod covering metal, with the desirable properties of a very low neutron capture (thin slice that can be looked at) and good chemical (firm and steady nature/lasting nature/strength) at high temperatures. However, because of hafnium’s neutron-soaking up (like a towel) properties, in zirconium would cause it to be far less useful for nuclear-reactor uses. So, a nearly complete separation of zirconium and hafnium is necessary for their use in nuclear power. The production of hafnium-free zirconium is the main source for hafnium.

 

 

The chemical properties of hafnium and zirconium are nearly identical, which makes the two very hard to separate. The methods first used — fractional crystallization of ammonium fluoride salts or the fractional summary/(when something is boiled down) of the chloride — have not proven good for an industrial-scale production. After zirconium was chosen as material for nuclear reactor programs in the 1940s, a separation method had to be developed. Liquid-liquid extraction processes with a wide variety of solvents were developed and are still used for the production of hafnium. About half of all hafnium metal manufactured is produced as a (something produced along with something else) of zirconium (good taste/good manners/improvement). The end product of the separation is hafnium(IV) chloride. The cleaned hafnium(IV) chloride is converted to the metal by reduction with magnesium or sodium, as in the Kroll process.

HfCl4 + 2 Mg (1100 °C) a†’ 2 MgCl2 + Hf
Further cleaning is produced/made happen by a chemical transport reaction developed by Arkel and de Boer: In a closed vessel, hafnium reacts with iodine at temperatures of 500 °C, forming hafnium(IV) iodide; at a tungsten thin thread of 1700 °C the reverse reaction happens, and the iodine and hafnium are set free. The chemical  forms a solid coating at the tungsten thin thread, and the iodine can react with added/more hafnium, resulting in a steady iodine turnover.

Hf + 2 I2 (500 °C) a†’ HfI4
HfI4 (1700 °C) a†’ Hf + 2 I2

 

 

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