How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s Learn About KRYPTON!

Krypton (from Very old Greek: ‘the hidden one’) is a chemical element with the symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It is a clear/white, odorless, (having no taste/rude and offensive) noble gas that happens in trace amounts in the atmosphere and is often used with other rare gases in fluorescent lamps. With rare exceptions, krypton is chemically not moving/powerless.

 

Krypton, like the other noble gases, is used in lighting and photography. Krypton light has many (related to ghosts or the colors of the rainbow) lines, and krypton plasma is useful in bright, high-powered gas lasers (krypton ion and excimer lasers), each of which (shakes from a loud sound/makes a person feel strongly about something) and increases a single (related to ghosts or the colors of the rainbow) line. Krypton fluoride also makes a useful laser medium. From 1960 to 1983, the official length of a meter was defined by the 606-nanometer wavelength of the orange (related to ghosts or the colors of the rainbow) line of krypton-86, because of the high power and relative ease of operation of krypton (release or flow of electricity) tubes.

 

 

Krypton was discovered in Britain in 1898 by William Ramsay, a Scottish chemist, and Morris Travers, an English chemist, in residue left from disappearing nearly all parts/pieces of liquid air. Neon was discovered by an almost the same procedure by the same workers just a few weeks later. William Ramsay was awarded the 1904 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovery of a series of noble gases, including krypton.

In 1960, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures defined the meter as 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of light gave off/given off by the krypton-86 isotope. This agreement replaced the 1889 international early model-related meter, which was a metal bar located in Sevres. This also made no longer useful the 1927 definition of the Ã¥ngström based on the red cadmium (related to ghosts or the colors of the rainbow) line, replacing it with 1 Ã… = 10aˆ’10 m. The krypton-86 definition lasted until the October 1983 (meeting to discuss things/meeting together), which redefined the meter as the distance that light travels in vacuum during 1/299,792,458 s.

 

 

Krypton is seen as (more than two, but not a lot of) sharp emission lines ((related to ghosts or the colors of the rainbow) signatures) the strongest being green and yellow. Krypton is one of the products of uranium fission. Solid krypton is white and has a face-centered cubic crystal structure, which is a common property of all noble gases (except helium, which has a six-sided close-packed crystal structure).

Naturally happening krypton in Earth’s atmosphere is composed of five stable isotopes, plus one isotope (78Kr) with such a long half-life (9.2Ö1021 years) that it can be thought about/believed stable. (This isotope has the second-longest known half-life among all isotopes for which (rotted, inferior, or ruined state) has been watched/followed; it goes through double electron take and hold (to prevent release) to 78Se). Also, about thirty unstable isotopes and isomers are known.[19] Traces of 81Kr, a cosmogenic nuclide produced by the (universe-related) ray exposure to radiation of 80Kr, also happen in nature: this isotope is radioactive with a half-life of 230,000 years. Krypton is highly dangerous and unstable and does not stay in solution in near-surface water, but 81Kr has been used for dating old (50,000-800,000 years) (underground water that supplies wells).

85Kr is a not moving/powerless radioactive noble gas with a half-life of 10.76 years. It is produced by the fission of uranium and plutonium, such as in nuclear bomb testing and nuclear reactors. 85Kr is released during the reprocessing of fuel rods from nuclear reactors. Concentrations at the North Pole are 30% higher than at the South Pole due to (related to heat transfer by hot air movement) mixing.

 

 

 

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How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s Learn About IRON!

Iron (/ˈaɪərn/) is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the first change metamorphose series and group 8 of the list of all elements. It is, by mass, the most common element on Earth, right in front of oxygen (32.1% and 30.1%), forming much of Earth’s outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth’s crust.

 

 

In its metallic state, iron is rare in the Earth’s crust, limited mainly to (removal from a ruling position)/legal statement under oath by rocks from space. Iron ores, very differently, are among the most plentiful in the Earth’s crust, although (pulling out or taking from something else) usable metal from them needs/demands (hot ovens for firing pottery) or furnaces capable of reaching 1,500 °C (2,730 °F) or higher, about 500 °C (900 °F) higher than that needed/demanded to smelt copper. Humans started to master that process in Eurasia by about 2000 BCE,[not (checked for truth/proved true) in body] and the use of iron tools and weapons began to displace copper mixtures (of metals), in some areas, only around 1200 BCE. That event is carefully thought about/believed the change (from one thing to another) from the (brown metal that’s copper and tin) Age to the Iron Age. In the modern world, iron mixtures (of metals), such as steel, stainless steel, cast iron and special steels are by far the most common industrial metals, because of their mechanical properties and low cost.

 

 

Unspoiled and smooth (completely/complete, with nothing else mixed in) iron surfaces are mirror-like silvery-gray. However, iron reacts easily with oxygen and water to give brown to black filled with water iron oxides, commonly known as rust. Unlike the oxides of some other metals, that form passivating layers, rust occupies more (total space occupied by something) than the metal and so flakes off, exposing fresh surfaces for (slow chemical breakdown of something/rust, etc.). Although iron easily reacts, high purity iron, called electrolytic iron, has better (slow chemical breakdown of something/rust, etc.) resistance.

The body of an adult human contains about 4 grams (0.005% body weight) of iron, mostly in (a part of the blood that carries oxygen) and myoglobin. These two proteins play extremely important roles in (animal with a backbones) (chemically processing and using food), (match up each pair of items in order) oxygen transport by blood and oxygen storage in muscles. To maintain the necessary levels, human iron (chemically processing and using food) needs/demands a minimum of iron in the diet. Iron is also the metal at the active site of many important redox enzymes dealing with cellular breathing and oxidation and reduction in plants and animals.

 

 

Chemically, the most common oxidation states of iron are iron(II) and iron(III). Iron shares many properties of other change (from one thing to another) metals, including the other group 8 elements, ruthenium and osmium. Iron forms compounds in a wide range of oxidation states, aˆ’2 to +7. Iron also forms many coordination compounds; some of them, such as ferrocene, ferrioxalate, and Prussian blue, have big industrial, medical, or research uses.

At least four give out/set asideropes of iron (different/disagreeing atom arrangements in the solid) are known, ordinarily represented α, γ, δ, and ε.

Low-pressure phase diagram of total/totally/with nothing else mixed in iron
The first three forms are watched/followed at ordinary pressures. As (hot) liquid iron cools past its freezing point of 1538 °C, it makes crystals/becomes clear and real into its δ give out/set asiderope, which has a body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure. As it cools further to 1394 °C, it changes to its γ-iron give out/set asiderope, a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure, or austenite. At 912 °C and below, the crystal structure again becomes the bcc α-iron give out/set asiderope.

 

 

The physical properties of iron at very high pressures and temperatures have also been studied a lot, because of their relevance to explanations (of why things work or happen the way they do) about the cores of the Earth and other planets. Above about 10 GPa and temperatures of a few hundred kelvin or less, α-iron changes into another six-sided close-packed (hcp) structure, which is also known as ε-iron. The higher-temperature γ-phase also changes into ε-iron, but does so at higher pressure.

Some (something that causes arguments between people) experimental (event(s) or object(s) that prove something) exists for a stable β phase at pressures above 50 GPa and temperatures of at least 1500 K. It is supposed to have an orthorhombic or a double hcp structure. (Confusingly, the term “β-iron” is sometimes also used to refer to α-iron above its Curie point, when it changes from being ferromagnetic to paramagnetic, even though its crystal structure has not changed.)

The inner core of the Earth is generally assumed to consist of an iron-nickel mix/mixture (of metals) with ε (or β) structure.

 

 

 

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Let’s Learn About COBOLT!

Cobalt is a chemical element with the symbol Co and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt is found in the Earth’s crust only in a chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal.

Cobalt is primarily used in lithium-ion batteries, and in the manufacture of magnetic, wear-resistant and high-strength alloys. The compounds cobalt silicate and cobalt(II) aluminate (CoAl2O4, cobalt blue) give a distinctive deep blue color to glass, ceramics, inks, paints and varnishes. People have been using cobalt-containing pigments to get that rich blue hue as far back as the 3rd millennium BCE, when Persians used them to color their necklace beads. The famed “cobalt blue” is actually the result of the compound cobalt aluminate.

 

Let's Learn About COBOLT!

 

Cobalt hides out in everyday objects and happenings around us, from batteries and blue paint to medical procedures. We’ve used it for millennia, but it didn’t get proper credit until the 18th century. With its 27 protons, cobalt is sandwiched between iron and nickel in the middle portion of the periodic table with the other “transition” metals, which bridge the main group elements located on either side. Here are ten curious facts about this element.

Though you can find cobalt just about everywhere—in the soil, in mineral deposits, and even in crusts on the seafloor—it’s always combined with other elements like nickel, copper, iron, or arsenic, such as in the bright crimson arsenate mineral erythrite.

 

Let's Learn About COBOLT!

 

Despite being relatively common, it’s considered a critical raw material by the European Union because there are few places where it’s abundant enough to be mined in larger quantities. Most of the Earth’s cobalt is in its core. Cobalt is of relatively low abundance in the Earth’s crust and in natural waters, from which it is precipitated as the highly insoluble cobalt sulfine CoS.

Cobalt is one of the few elements that are ferromagnetic, which means it can become magnetized when exposed to an external magnetic field. It remains magnetic at extremely high temperatures, making it very useful for the specialized magnets in generators and hard drives.

As cobalt is widely dispersed in the environment humans may be exposed to it by breathing air, drinking water and eating food that contains cobalt. Skin contact with soil or water that contains cobalt may also enhance exposure.

Cobalt is beneficial for humans because it is a part of vitamin B12, which is essential for human health.

 

Let's Learn About COBOLT!

 

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Let’s Learn About ACTINIUM!

Actinium is a chemical element with the symbol Ac and atomic number 89. A ton of pitchblende ore contains about 0.15 mg of actinium. It was first isolated by Friedrich Oskar Giesel in 1902, who gave it the name emanium; the element got its name by being wrongly identified with a substance André-Louis Debierne found and called actinium.

It is a soft, silvery-white radioactive metal. It glows blue in the dark because its intense radioactivity excites the air around it. Actinium is a very powerful source of alpha rays, but is rarely used outside research.

It is about 150 times as radioactive as radium, making it valuable as a neutron source. Otherwise it has no significant industrial applications. Actinium-225 is used in medicine to produce Bi-213 in a reusable generator or can be used alone as an agent for radio-immunotherapy.

 

Let's Learn About ACTINIUM!

 

Actinium has 36 isotopes, none of which are stable. Actinium occurs as isotope 227Ac in uranium decay. It has several decay products, including isotope 227Ac, a beta emitter that is a decay product of 2235U with a 21.6-year half-life.

Actinium is found naturally in uranium ores. It rarely occurs as a free element in the earth’s crust. It is more frequently produced in the lab, largely for use as a radiation source.

Actinium is a very powerful source of alpha rays, but is rarely used outside research. It has no known biological role. It is toxic due to its radioactivity. Actinium used for research purposes is made by the neutron bombardment of radium-226.

 

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Actinium itself glows in the dark and reacts with water to produce hydrogen gas. It also reacts with air and acids, but not bases. It is used in thermoelectric power sources and also used in neutron emitters.

 

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Let’s Learn About SULFUR!

Sulfur is a chemical element with the symbol S and atomic number 16. It is abundant, multivalent and nonmetallic. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S₈. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow, crystalline solid at room temperature.

Pure sulfur is a tasteless, odourless, brittle solid that is pale yellow in colour, a poor conductor of electricity, and insoluble in water. It reacts with all metals except gold and platinum, forming sulfides; it also forms compounds with several nonmetallic elements.

 

Let's Learn About SULFUR!

 

The most common appears as yellow crystals or powder. It is used in the vulcanisation of black rubber, as a fungicide and in black gunpowder. Most sulfur is used in the production of sulfuric acid, which is perhaps the most important chemical manufactured by western civilisations.

The major derivative of sulphur is sulphuric acid (H2SO4), one of the most important elements used as an industrial raw material. Sulphur is also used in batteries, detergents, fungicides, manufacture of fertilizers, gun power, matches and fireworks.

A nonmetal, it is the 10th most abundant element in the universe, according to the Jefferson National Linear Accelerator Laboratory. Today, it’s most common use is in the manufacture of sulfuric

acid, which in turn goes into fertilizers, batteries and cleaners. It’s also used to refine oil and in processing ores.

 

Let's Learn About Sulfur!

 

Sulfur occurs frequently in compounds in nature, usually as a stinky, yellow mineral associated with hot springs and volcanoes.

When burned, sulfur produces a blue flame and sulfur dioxide gas — a common pollutant.

 

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Let’s Learn About PALLADIUM!

Palladium is a chemical element with the symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by the English chemist William Hyde Wollaston and named after an asteroid.  Before the precious metal palladium was discovered, the word “palladium” referred to objects believed to mystically provide protection and safety ( a talisman ). The origin of the definition comes from Homer’s Iliad.

 

Let's Learn About PALLADIUM!

 

Palladium is one of six metals belonging to the platinum family. The others are platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium, and iridium. All these precious metals are known for their catalytic abilities when it comes to speeding up chemical reactions.

Palladium is now the most valuable of the four major precious metals, with an acute shortage driving prices to a record. A key component in pollution-control devices for cars and trucks, the metal’s price doubled in little more than a year, making it more expensive than gold.

 

Let's Learn About PALLADIUM!

 

A extremely malleable and tarnish-resistant metal, palladium has become a popular metal for jewelry making and catalytic converters because it does not react with oxygen. In jewelry, palladium is known for its durability, low-maintenance, and similar appearance to platinum at a much lower cost.

Russia and South Africa supply about 40% of the world’s palladium, making them the highest producers each year.

In 2010, Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi, and Akira Suzuki were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their work in palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions and organic synthesis – which are widely used for the synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

 

 

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Let’s Learn About SILVER!

Silver is a chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal.

Silver was one of the first five elements discovered, along with gold, copper, lead and iron and has been mined for over 6000 years. Silver objects have been found dating as far back as 4000 BC.

 

Let's Learn About SILVER!

 

 

Silver is the most reflective element, reflecting 95% of the visible light spectrum. Unless you use it in ultraviolet light, which makes it about as reflective as a stone. It is most effective immediately after placement.  Silver is stable in oxygen and water, but tarnishes when exposed to ozone, hydrogen sulfide or air containing sulfur due to a reaction with sulfur compounds which cause a black sulfide layer. The crystal structure of silver is cubic.

 

Silver forms in star explosions called supernovae, as does gold. A study published in September 2012 in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics found that smaller stars that explode produce silver, while larger stars produce gold.

Silver is rare element relative to other elements. This rarity also makes it the precious metal. It is not a very reactive element, so it found in its pure form and also in some minerals, e.g. argentite. The major silver producing countries are China, Peru, and Mexico.

Silver iodide has been used to make clouds produce rain in an attempt to control hurricanes.

 

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Let’s Learn About GOLD!

 

Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In a pure form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element.

It is a precious metal. It has emotional, cultural and financial value and different people across the globe buy gold for different reasons, often influenced by a range of national socio-cultural factors, local market conditions and wider macro-economic drivers.

 

Let's Learn About GOLD!

 

 

Gold mining describes the process of extracting ore from the earth’s crust. Modern gold mining predominantly takes place in areas where there is a significant concentration of gold-bearing ore. Today, about 70% of the world’s gold production comes from surface mines, while the rest is from underground gold mines.

 

Let's Learn About GOLD!

 

Gold has several qualities that make it exceptionally valuabl. It is attractive in colour and brightness, durable to the point of virtual indestructibility, highly malleable, and usually found in nature in a comparatively pure form. The history of gold is unequaled by that of any other metal because of its perceived value from earliest times.

Gold is one of the densest of all metals. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. It is also soft and the most malleable and ductile of the elements.

 

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Because gold (Au) is visually pleasing and workable and does not tarnish or corrode, it was one of the first metals to attract human attention. Examples of amazing gold workmanship survive from ancient Egyptian, Minoan, Assyrian, and Etruscan artisans, and gold continues to be a highly favoured material out of which to craft jewelry and other decorative objects.

 

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Let’s learn about CHROMIUM!

 

Let's learn about CHROMIUM - In!

 

Chromium is a chemical element with the symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in group 6. It is a steely-grey, lustrous, hard, and brittle transition metal. Chromium is the main additive in stainless steel, to which it adds anti-corrosive properties.

It is a lustrous, brittle, hard metal. It is silver-gray and it can be highly polished. It does not tarnish in air, when heated it borns and forms the green chromic oxide. Chromium is unstable in oxygen, it immediately produces a thin oxide layer that is impermeable to oxygen and protects the metal below.

 

 

Chromium is a chemical element with the symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

 

It is mainly used in electroplating, tanning, printing, and dyeing, medicine, fuel, catalysts, oxidants, matches, and metal corrosion inhibitors. At the same time, metallic chromium has become one of the most important electroplated metals.

It’s used in a variety of applications. Motorcycles often feature chromium-coated components, whereas silverware may feature a similar type of chromium plating. It is used in stainless steel. It doesn’t rust. It reflects nearly 70% of visible light

 

Let's learn about CHROMIUM - In!

 

 

 

 

 

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Let’s learn about BORON!

Boron is a chemical (non-metalic) element with the symbol B and atomic number 5. Produced entirely by cosmic ray spallation and supernovae and not by stellar nucleosynthesis, it is a low-abundance element in the Solar System and in the Earth’s crust. It constitutes about 0.001 percent by weight of Earth’s crust.  Boron is electron-deficient, possessing a vacant p-orbital. It has several forms, the most common of which is amorphous boron, a dark powder, unreactive to oxygen, water, acids and alkalis. It reacts with metals to form borides. At standard temperatures boron is a poor electrical conductor but is a good conductor at high temperatures.

Boron is a mineral that is found in food such as nuts and the environment. People take boron supplements as medicine. It is used for building strong bones, treating osteoarthritis, as an aid for building muscles and increasing testosterone levels, and for improving thinking skills and muscle coordination.

Boron was used as a food preservative between 1870 and 1920, and during World Wars I and II.

 

Let's learn about BORON -B!

 

The most economically important compound of boron is sodium tetraborate decahydrate Na2B4O7 · 10H2O, or borax, used for insulating fiberglass and sodium perborate bleach. Boric acid is an important compound used in textile products.  Compounds of boron are used in organic synthesis, in the manufacture of a particular type of glasses, and as wood preservatives. Boron filaments are used for advanced aerospace structures, due to their high-strength and light weight.

An early use of borax was to make perborate, the beaching agent once widely used in household detergents.

Boron compound also came into the average home in the guise of food preservatives, especially for margarine and fish.

 

 

Boron is not present in nature in elemental form. It is found combined in borax, boric acid, kernite, ulexite, colemanite and borates. Vulcanic spring waters sometime contains boric acids.
Borates are mined in US, Tibet, Chile and Turkey, with world production being about 2 million tonnes per year.

 

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