Oxygen

Why Oxygen Supply is Needed in Remote Areas

Foxolution SE provides the ability to supply medical oxygen and nitrogen to remote areas.  But why is this such a vital thing?  In this blog article by Kevin Watkins, he explores the reasons for this – especially during the Covid-19 crisis.

 

Hospital oxygen concentrator - Foxolution Systems Engineering CC - Why Oxygen Supply is Needed in Remote Areas

 

Oxygen for all, during COVID-19 (coronavirus) and beyond
KEVIN WATKINS|MAY 26, 2020

Source – https://blogs.worldbank.org/health/oxygen-all-during-covid-19-coronavirus-and-beyond

“In his first interview after leaving the hospital treating him for COVID-19 (coronavirus), UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson recounted the desperate moments when his life hung in the balance. “I was going through liters and liters of oxygen,” he recalled, adding about his recovery: “I was a very lucky man.”

It was a comment that highlighted the critical importance of medical oxygen. Without it, the Prime Minister’s brush with COVID-19 might have had a tragically different ending.

Oxygen is all around us in the air we breathe. Perhaps that’s why we sometimes forget it is also a life-saving essential medicine. Medical oxygen is a key treatment for severe pneumonia, malaria, sepsis and meningitis. Yet it is seldom available to the children and mothers whose lives are at risk. Where it is available, it is often unaffordable to the poorest and most disadvantaged.

Media coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic has created a moral panic over shortages of ventilators available in Africa. Those shortages are real. But increasing the stock of ventilators without fixing oxygen systems is a prescription for avoidable fatalities. Medical oxygen is the primary treatment for the majority of patients who are suffering severe COVID-19 symptoms. That’s why the WHO recommends that all countries focus on the development of medical oxygen systems and provision of pulse oximeters to measure blood oxygen levels.

Following that advice will help build a more equitable health system, one that’s equipped to respond not only to the viral pneumonia threatening adults with COVID-19, but also to the viral and bacterial pneumonia that is now the biggest infectious killer of children. This is a disease that claims over 800,000 young lives every year. Never mind ventilators: many of these children are left fighting for breath without even the most basic oxygen therapy. Yet as the Every Breath Counts Coalition points out, the COVID-19 response so far has largely overlooked the importance of medical oxygen supply and diagnostic tools for identifying hypoxemia.

Last year I visited rural health clinics and hospitals across northwest Nigeria, an area marked by endemic malnutrition, childhood pneumonia and malaria. Medical oxygen was almost entirely absent from health facilities. Doctors in one referral hospital told me they were regularly forced to ration access to oxygen between children in desperate need, based on judgments about their survival prospects. And this is a microcosm of experience across the poorest countries. Modeling suggests that improving oxygen access could avert 148,000 deaths of children under 5 each year in the 15 countries that have the highest pneumonia burden. So why are we losing so many lives that could be saved?

Medical oxygen supplies starkly illustrate health inequalities between and within countries. The UK hospital that treated Boris Johnson for COVID-19 is supplied with industrial quantities of high-grade liquid oxygen, with storage facilities linked to patients through miles of piping and complex valves. Bulk purchases reduce costs. Meanwhile, public financing of the National Health Service means patients receive oxygen free of charge.

Contrast this with the situation in poorer countries. Most hospitals are supplied by cylinders filled at industrial gas plants and transported by truck. Patients are typically charged directly for the cost of refilling. Treating a child with severe pneumonia over 3-4 days can require anything from 4,000 to 8,000 cubic liters of oxygen at a cost of $40-60. For the poorest households, that prospective bill represents a huge barrier to treatment – if the child is able to get to a hospital with oxygen at all.

The challenge is to increase the supply of medical oxygen while reducing cost so that it’s accessible where it’s needed most, free at the point of use. It will take increased investment and commitment to put oxygen at the center of strategies for universal health coverage.

Market management can help. Pooling demand can help generate economies of scale and drive down prices. In Kenya, a social enterprise, Hewa Tele, has established three oxygen production plants, each serving a cluster of hospitals. The plants have cut hospital purchase costs by around one-third.

Similar models are being developed in other countries. In Ethiopia, a coalition of companies, philanthropic foundations, UN agencies, and not-for-profit actors – the United4Oxygen Alliance – is working with the government to implement Africa’s first national plan for universal access to medical oxygen.

The opportunities are vast, but innovation is needed to reach the most vulnerable. One initiative – FREO2 – has developed ingenious technologies to concentrate and store oxygen in health centers that lack electricity. Investing in the maintenance of concentrators and adapting them for use across 4-5 children through simple plastic tubing is another low-tech solution that can save lives.

Medical oxygen has been recognized as an essential medicine for well over a century. Yet it remains beyond the reach of desperately vulnerable children. It has not figured in the priorities of the global development organizations. There are no major global campaigns or disease days to galvanize action on medical oxygen, despite the suffering caused by its absence of supply. The fact that the poorest and most disadvantaged children bear the brunt of the medical oxygen deficit adds to the urgency for action.

COVID-19 is a public health crisis without parallel in recent history. But it is also an opportunity to turn the spotlight on medical oxygen as one of the defining health equity issues of our age. Universal access to oxygen is not a vague aspiration. We lack neither the finance nor the technology. The need is self-evident. What has been missing is political leadership and international cooperation – and those are deficits we can fix.”

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Let’s learn about INDIUM!

 

Let's learn about INDIUM - In!

 

Indium is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. Indium is the softest metal that is not an alkali metal. It is a silvery-white metal that resembles tin in appearance. It is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth’s crust. Indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium, but lower than lithium and tin. Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium, and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties. Indium was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter by spectroscopic methods. They named it for the indigo blue line in its spectrum. Indium was isolated the next year.

 

lets learn.. lithium

 

Indium is a minor component in zinc sulfide ores and is produced as a byproduct of zinc refinement. It is most notably used in the semiconductor industry, in low-melting-point metal alloys such as solders, in soft-metal high-vacuum seals, and in the production of transparent conductive coatings of indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass. Indium is considered a technology-critical element.

 

lets learn.. lithium

 

Indium has no biological role. Its compounds are toxic when injected into the bloodstream. Most occupational exposure is through ingestion, from which indium compounds are not absorbed well, and inhalation, from which they are moderately absorbed.

 

lets learn.. lithium

 

Indium is a silvery-white, highly ductile post-transition metal with a bright luster. It is so soft (Mohs hardness 1.2) that like sodium, it can be cut with a knife. It also leaves a visible line on paper. It is a member of group 13 on the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between its vertical neighbours gallium and thallium. Like tin, a high-pitched cry is heard when indium is bent – a crackling sound due to crystal twinning.  Like gallium, indium is able to wet glass. Like both, indium has a low melting point, 156.60 °C (313.88 °F); higher than its lighter homologue, gallium, but lower than its heavier homologue, thallium, and lower than tin.  The boiling point is 2072 °C (3762 °F), higher than that of thallium, but lower than gallium, conversely to the general trend of melting points, but similarly to the trends down the other post-transition metal groups because of the weakness of the metallic bonding with few electrons delocalized.

 

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Let’s learn about ZIRCONIUM!

Let's learn about ZIRCONIUM - Zr!

 

Zirconium is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. The name zirconium is taken from the name of the mineral zircon (the word is related to Persian zargun (zircon; zar-gun, “gold-like” or “as gold”)), the most important source of zirconium.It is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal that closely resembles hafnium and, to a lesser extent, titanium. Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although small amounts are used as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion. Zirconium forms a variety of inorganic and organometallic compounds such as zirconium dioxide and zirconocene dichloride, respectively. Five isotopes occur naturally, three of which are stable. Zirconium compounds have no known biological role.

 

 

Zirconium is a lustrous, greyish-white, soft, ductile, malleable metal that is solid at room temperature, though it is hard and brittle at lesser purities. In powder form, zirconium is highly flammable, but the solid form is much less prone to ignition. Zirconium is highly resistant to corrosion by alkalis, acids, salt water and other agents. However, it will dissolve in hydrochloric and sulfuric acid, especially when fluorine is present. Alloys with zinc are magnetic at less than 35 K.

 

 

The melting point of zirconium is 1855 °C (3371 °F), and the boiling point is 4371 °C (7900 °F).  Zirconium has an electronegativity of 1.33 on the Pauling scale. Of the elements within the d-block with known electronegativities, zirconium has the fifth lowest electronegativity after hafnium, yttrium, lanthanum, and actinium.

 

 

At room temperature zirconium exhibits a hexagonally close-packed crystal structure, α-Zr, which changes to β-Zr, a body-centered cubic crystal structure, at 863 °C. Zirconium exists in the β-phase until the melting point.

 

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Let’s learn about POTASSIUM!

 

Let's learn about............ POTASSIUM - K!

 

Potassium is a chemical element with the symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19. Potassium is a silvery-white metal that is soft enough to be cut with a knife with little force.[5] Potassium metal reacts rapidly with atmospheric oxygen to form flaky white potassium peroxide in only seconds of exposure. It was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives. In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals, all of which have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, that is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge – a cation, that combines with anions to form salts. Potassium in nature occurs only in ionic salts. Elemental potassium reacts vigorously with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite hydrogen emitted in the reaction, and burning with a lilac-colored flame. It is found dissolved in sea water (which is 0.04% potassium by weight[6][7]), and occurs in many minerals such as orthoclase, a common constituent of granites and other igneous rocks.

 

Let's learn about............ POTASSIUM!

 

Potassium is chemically very similar to sodium, the previous element in group 1 of the periodic table. They have a similar first ionization energy, which allows for each atom to give up its sole outer electron. It was suspected in 1702 that they were distinct elements that combine with the same anions to make similar salts,[8] and was proven in 1807 using electrolysis. Naturally occurring potassium is composed of three isotopes, of which 40
K is radioactive. Traces of 40 K are found in all potassium, and it is the most common radioisotope in the human body.

 

Let's learn about............ POTASSIUM!

 

Potassium ions are vital for the functioning of all living cells. The transfer of potassium ions across nerve cell membranes is necessary for normal nerve transmission; potassium deficiency and excess can each result in numerous signs and symptoms, including an abnormal heart rhythm and various electrocardiographic abnormalities. Fresh fruits and vegetables are good dietary sources of potassium. The body responds to the influx of dietary potassium, which raises serum potassium levels, with a shift of potassium from outside to inside cells and an increase in potassium excretion by the kidneys.

 

Let's learn about............ POTASSIUM!

 

Most industrial applications of potassium exploit the high solubility in water of potassium compounds, such as potassium soaps. Heavy crop production rapidly depletes the soil of potassium, and this can be remedied with agricultural fertilizers containing potassium, accounting for 95% of global potassium chemical production.[9]

 

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Let’s learn about ALUMINIUM!

 

Let's learn about...... ALUMINIUM!

 

Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common metals, at approximately one third that of steel. It has a great affinity towards oxygen, and forms a protective layer of oxide on the surface when exposed to air. Aluminium visually resembles silver, both in its color and in its great ability to reflect light. It is soft, non-magnetic and ductile. It has one stable isotope, 27Al; this isotope is very common, making aluminium the twelfth most common element in the Universe. The radioactivity of 26Al is used in radiodating.

 

Let's learn about...... ALUMINIUM!

 

Chemically, aluminium is a weak metal in the boron group; as it is common for the group, aluminium forms compounds primarily in the +3 oxidation state. The aluminium cation Al3+ is small and highly charged; as such, it is polarizing, and bonds aluminium forms tend towards covalency. The strong affinity towards oxygen leads to aluminium’s common association with oxygen in nature in the form of oxides; for this reason, aluminium is found on Earth primarily in rocks in the crust, where it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon, rather than in the mantle, and virtually never as the free metal.

 

Let's learn about...... ALUMINIUM!

 

The discovery of aluminium was announced in 1825 by Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted. The first industrial production of aluminium was initiated by French chemist Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville in 1856. Aluminium became much more available to the public with the Hall–Héroult process developed independently by French engineer Paul Héroult and American engineer Charles Martin Hall in 1886, and the mass production of aluminium led to its extensive use in industry and everyday life. In World Wars I and II, aluminium was a crucial strategic resource for aviation. In 1954, aluminium became the most produced non-ferrous metal, surpassing copper. In the 21st century, most aluminium was consumed in transportation, engineering, construction, and packaging in the United States, Western Europe, and Japan.

 

Let's learn about...... ALUMINIUM - Al!

 

Despite its prevalence in the environment, no living organism is known to use aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of the abundance of these salts, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, and studies continue.

 

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Let’s learn about LITHIUM!

 

Let's learn about LITHIUM!

 

Lithium (from Greek: λίθος, romanized: lithos, lit. ‘stone’) is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and must be stored in mineral oil. When cut, it shows a metallic shine, but moist air rusts/wears away it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black discolor and ruin. It never happens freely in nature, but only in (usually ionic) compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals, which were once the main source of lithium. Due to its dissolvability as an ion, it is present in ocean water and is commonly found in salt waters. Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.

 

Let's learn about LITHIUM!

 

The nucleus of the lithium atom edges on are borderline instable, since the two stable lithium isotopes found in nature have among the lowest binding energies per nucleon of all stable nuclides. Because of its relative nuclear instability, lithium is less common in the solar system than 25 of the first 32 chemical elements even though its nucleus is very light: it is an exception to the rule that heavier cell nuclei are less common. For related reasons, lithium has important uses in nuclear physics. The change of lithium atoms to helium in 1932 was the first fully man-made nuclear reaction, and lithium deuteride serves as a fusion fuel in staged thermonucleur weapons.

 

Let's learn about LITHIUM!

 

Lithium and its compounds have a number of industrial uses, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, lithium grease lubricants, flux additives for iron, steel and aluminium production, lithium electrical storage devices, and lithium-ion electrical storage devices. These uses consume more than three-quarters of lithium production.

 

Let's learn about LITHIUM - Li!

 

Lithium is present in organic systems in trace amounts; its functions are uncertain. Lithium salts have proven to be useful as a mood-stabilizing drug in the treatment of bi-polar disorders.

 

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Let’s learn about SODIUM!

 

Let's learn about SODIUM!

 

Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na (from Latin “natrium”) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Sodium is an alkali metal, being in group 1 of the periodic table. Its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not happen in nature, and must be prepared from compounds. Sodium is the sixth most plentiful element in the Earth’s crust and exists in many minerals such as feldspars, sodalite, and rock salt (NaCl). Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been slowly leaked by the action of water from the Earth’s minerals over very long periods of time, and so sodium and chlorine are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans.

 

lets learn... sodium

 

Sodium was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide. Among many other useful sodium compounds, sodium hydroxide (lye) is used in soap manufacture, and sodium chloride (edible salt) is a de-icing agent and a nutrient for animals including humans.

 

lets learn... sodium

 

Sodium is an extremely important element for all animals and some plants. Sodium ions are the major cation in the exra cellular fluid (ECF) and as such are the major contributor to the ECF osmotic pressure and ECF compartment volume. Loss of water from the ECF compartment increases the sodium concentration, a condition called hypernatremia. Isotonic loss of water and sodium from the ECF compartment decreases the size of that compartment in a condition called ECF hypovolemia.

 

lets learn... sodium - Na

 

By means of the sodium-potassium pump, living human cells pump three sodium ions out of the cell in exchange for two potassium ions pumped in; comparing ion concentrations across the cell membrane, inside to outside, potassium measures about 40:1, and sodium, about 1:10. In nerve cells, the electrical charge across the cell membrane enables transmission of the nerve sudden (unplanned) desire–an action potential–when the charge is disappeared (or wasted); sodium plays an extremely important role in that activity.

 

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Let’s learn about CHLORINE!

 

Lets learn about CHLORINE!

 

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly halfway between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is a very reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron attraction and the third-highest electronegativity on the Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine.

 

Chlorine played an important role in the experiments managed and done by medieval alchemists, which commonly involved the heating of chloride salts like ammonium chloride sal ammonic and sodium chloride (common salt), producing different chemical substances containing chlorine such as hydrogen chloride, mercury(II) chloride (corrosive sublimate), and hydrochloric acid (in the form of aqua regia). However, the nature of free chlorine gas as a separate substance was only recognised around 1630 by Jan Baptist van Helmont. Carl Wilhelm Scheele wrote a description of chlorine gas in 1774, supposing it to be an oxide of a new element. In 1809, chemists suggested that the gas might be a (completely/complete, with nothing else mixed in) element, and this was proven true by Sir Humphry Davy in 1810, who named it from Very old Greek: χλωρός, romanized: khloros, lit. ‘pale green’ based on its colour.

 

Lets learn about CHLORINE!

 

Because of its great reactivity, all chlorine in the Earth’s crust is in the form of ionic chloride compounds, which includes table salt. It is the second-most plentiful halogen (after fluorine) and twenty-first most plentiful chemical element in Earth’s crust. These crustal deposits are anyway dwarfed by the huge reserves of chloride in seawater.

 

Elemental chlorine is commercially produced from salt water by electrolysis, mostly in the chlor-alkali process. The high oxidising potential of elemental chlorine led to the development of commercial strong whitening chemicals and disinfectants, and a reagent for many processes in the chemical industry. Chlorine is used in the manufacture of a wide range of person of consumer products, about two-thirds of them organic chemicals such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), many intermediates for the production of plastics, and other end products which do not contain the element. As a common disinfectant, elemental chlorine and chlorine-creating compounds are used more directly in swimming pools to keep them sanitary. Elemental chlorine at high concentration is very dangerous, and poisonous to most living (living things). As a chemical war fighting agent, chlorine was first used in World War I as a poison gas weapon.

 

In the form of chloride ions, chlorine is necessary to all known species of life. Other types of chlorine compounds are rare in living things, and synthetically produced chlorinated organics range from inert to poisonous. In the upper atmosphere, chlorine-containing organic molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been involved in ozone depletion. Small amounts of elemental chlorine are created by oxidation of chloride to hypochlorite in neutrophils as part of a disease-fighting system response against bacteria.

 

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Let’s learn about NITROGEN!

 

lets learn... nitrogen

 

Nitrogen is the chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and (separated far from others) by Scottish doctor Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally given/gave the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogene was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790 when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates. Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Greek a¼€Î¶Ï‰Ï„ικός “no life”, as it is a (not breathing)nt gas; this name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Italian, Russian, Romanian, Portuguese and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds.

 

Nitrogen is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens. It is a common element in the universe, guessed  at about seventh in total (oversupply/large amount) in the Milky Way and the Solar System. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a clear/white and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N2. Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth’s atmosphere, making it the most plentiful uncombined element. Nitrogen happens in all (living things), mostly in amino acids (and this way proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the energy move (from one place to another) molecule adenosine triphosphate. The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most plentiful element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the (locations on the Earth that support life) and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere.

 

lets learn... nitrogen

 

Many industrially important compounds, such as strong-smelling chemical, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and bombs), and (poisonous chemical)s, contain nitrogen. The very strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (Na‰¡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after deadly gas (CO3), rules nitrogen chemistry. This causes difficulty for both (living things) and industry in converting N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time means that burning, exploding, or rotting nitrogen compounds to form nitrogen gas releases large amounts of often useful energy. Synthetically produced strong-smelling chemical and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, and fertiliser nitrates are key (things that dirty the air, oceans, etc.) in the eutrophication of water systems.

 

Apart from its use in fertilisers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a part of organic compounds as (many different kinds of people or things) as Kevlar used in high-strength fabric and cyanoacrylate used in superglue. Nitrogen is a part of every major (related to medical drugs) drug class, including germ-killing drugs. Many drugs are imitations or prodrugs of natural nitrogen-containing signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin and nitroprusside control blood pressure by (chemically processing and using up) into nitric oxide. Many well known nitrogen-containing drugs, such as the natural (drug that gives you energy) and morphine or the syntheically produced chemicals (that give energy), act on receptors of animal brain chemicals.

 

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Let’s learn about CARBON!

 

lets learn.. carbonlets learn.. carbon

 

Carbon (from Latin: carbo “coal”) is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent–making four electrons available to form covalent chemical (forces that glue or join things together). It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth’s crust. Three isotopes happen naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide, (rotting/becoming ruined/worsening) with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since (a time long, long ago).

 

Carbon is the 15th most plentiful element in the Earth’s crust, and the fourth most plentiful element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon’s (oversupply/large amount), its (like nothing else in the world) (many different kinds of people or things) of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly met on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life. It is the second most plentiful element in the human body by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen.

 

lets learn.. carbonlets learn.. carbon

 

The atoms of carbon can bond together in (many different kinds of people or things) ways, resulting in different give out/set asideropes of carbon. The best known give out/set asideropes are graphite, diamond, and buckminsterfullerene. The physical properties of carbon change/differ widely with the give out/set asideropic form. For example, graphite is light-blocking/difficult to understand and black while diamond is highly clear/open and honest. Graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek verb “γράφειν” which means “to write”), while diamond is the hardest naturally happening material known. Graphite is a good electrical conductor while diamond has a low electrical (ability to let electricity flow). Under (usual/ commonly and regular/ healthy) conditions, diamond, carbon nanotubes, and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials. All carbon give out/set asideropes are solids under (usual/ commonly and regular/ healthy) conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form at standard temperature and pressure. They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen.

 

The most common oxidation state of carbon in (not related to living things) compounds is +4, while +2 is found in deadly gas and change (from one thing to another) metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of (not related to living things) carbon are limestones, dolomites and carbon dioxide, but significant amounts happen in organic deposits of coal, peat, oil, and methane clathrates. Carbon forms a huge number of compounds, more than any other element, with almost ten million compounds described to date, and yet that number is only a fraction of the number of probably (but not definitely) possible compounds under standard conditions. For this reason, carbon has often been referred to as the “king of the elements”.

 

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