How oxygen concentrators work

Let’s Learn About CALIFORNIUM!

 

 

Californium is a radioactive chemical element with the symbol Cf and atomic number 98. The element was first created in 1950 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (then the University of California Radiation Laboratory), by (overloading and overwhelming with bullets, questions, requests, etc) curium with alpha particles (helium-4 ions). It is an actinide element, the sixth transuranium element to be made/created, and has the second-highest atomic mass of all the elements that have been produced in amounts large enough to see with the (without receiving help) eye (after einsteinium). The element was named after the university and the U.S. state of California.

Two (very clear/related to things that look like little pieces of clear glass) forms exist for californium under (usual/ commonly and regular/ healthy) pressure: one above and one below 900 °C (1,650 °F). A third form exists at high pressure. Californium slowly discolors and ruins in air at room temperature. Compounds of californium are ruled-over by the +3 oxidation state. The most stable of californium’s twenty known isotopes is californium-251, which has a half-life of 898 years. This short half-life means the element is not found in significant amounts in the Earth’s crust.[a] Californium-252, with a half-life of about 2.645 years, is the most common isotope used and is produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States and the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors in Russia.

 

Californium is one of the few transuranium elements that have practical uses. Most of these applications use (for selfish reasons) property of certain isotopes of californium to give off neutrons. For example, californium can be used to help start up nuclear reactors, and it is employed as a source of neutrons when studying materials using neutron diffraction and neutron spectroscopy. Californium can also be used in nuclear (creation/combination) of higher mass elements; oganesson (element 118) was made/created by (overloading and overwhelming with bullets, questions, requests, etc) californium-249 atoms with (silvery metal/important nutrient)-48 ions. Users of californium must take into account (related to X-rays)al concerns and the element’s ability to disrupt the (creation and construction/ group of objects) of red blood cells by bioaccumulating in extremely skinny/skeleton-related tissue.

Californium was first made/created at the University of California Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, by the physics (people who work to find information) Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg on or about February 9, 1950. It was the sixth transuranium element to be discovered; the team announced its discovery on March 17, 1950.

 

 

To identify and separate out the element, ion exchange and adsorsion methods were done/tried. Only about 5,000 atoms of californium were produced in this experiment, and these atoms had a half-life of 44 minutes.

The discoverers named the new element after the university and the state. This was a break from the convention used for elements 95 to 97, which drew inspiration from how the elements directly above them in the list of all elements were named. However, the element directly above element 98 in the list of all elements, dysprosium, has a name that simply means “hard to get at” so the (people who work to find information) decided to set aside the informal (common way of putting a name on something). They added that “the best we can do is to point out [that] … searchers a century ago found it very hard to get to California.”

Weighable amounts of californium were first produced by the exposure to radiation of plutonium targets at the Materials Testing Reactor at the National Reactor Testing Station in eastern Idaho; and these findings were reported in 1954. The high unplanned (and sudden) fission rate of californium-252 was watched/followed in these samples. The first experiment with californium in (focused one’s effort/increased/mainly studied) form happened in 1958. The isotopes californium-249 to californium-252 were (separated far from others) that same year from a sample of plutonium-239 that had been exposed to radiation with neutrons in a nuclear reactor for five years. Two years later, in 1960, Burris Cunningham and James Wallman of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory of the University of California created the first californium compounds–californium trichloride, californium oxychloride, and californium oxide–by treating californium with steam and hydrochloric acid.

 

 

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, started producing small batches of californium in the 1960s. By 1995, the HFIR in name produced 500 milligrams (0.018 oz) of californium every year. Plutonium supplied by the United Kingdom to the United States under the 1958 US-UK Back and forth/equal between people Defence Agreement was used for californium production.

The Atomic Energy Commission sold californium-252 to industrial and (related to school and learning) customers in the early 1970s for $10 per microgram[26] and an average of 150 mg (0.0053 oz) of californium-252 were shipped each year from 1970 to 1990. Californium metal was first prepared in 1974 by Haire and Baybarz who reduced californium(III) oxide with lanthanum metal to get microgram amounts of sub-micrometer thick films.

 

 

Traces of californium can be found near facilities that use the element in mineral prospecting and in medical treatments. The element is fairly (unable to be dissolved in something) in water, but it sticks well to ordinary soil; and concentrations of it in the soil can be 500 times higher than in the water surrounding the soil particles.

Traces of californium can be found near facilities that use the element in mineral prospecting and in medical treatments. The element is fairly (unable to be dissolved in something) in water, but it sticks well to ordinary soil; and concentrations of it in the soil can be 500 times higher than in the water surrounding the soil particles.

 

 

Results/argument from (related to the air outside) nuclear testing before 1980 added/gave a small amount of californium to the health of the Earth/the surrounding conditions. Californium isotopes with mass numbers 249, 252, 253, and 254 have been watched/followed in the radioactive dust collected from the air after a nuclear explosion. Californium is not a major radionuclide at United States Department of Energy (something given to future people) places/locations since it was not produced in large amounts.

Californium was once believed to be produced in supernovas, as their (rotted, inferior, or ruined state) matches the 60-day half-life of 254Cf. However, later studies did not (show or prove) any californium spectra, and supernova light curves are now thought to follow the (rotted, inferior, or ruined state) of nickel-56.

The transuranic elements from (element) to fermium, including californium, happened naturally in the natural nuclear fission reactor at Oklo, but no longer do so.

 

 

Contact Us >>