Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In a pure form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element.
It is a precious metal. It has emotional, cultural and financial value and different people across the globe buy gold for different reasons, often influenced by a range of national socio-cultural factors, local market conditions and wider macro-economic drivers.
Gold mining describes the process of extracting ore from the earth’s crust. Modern gold mining predominantly takes place in areas where there is a significant concentration of gold-bearing ore. Today, about 70% of the world’s gold production comes from surface mines, while the rest is from underground gold mines.
Gold has several qualities that make it exceptionally valuabl. It is attractive in colour and brightness, durable to the point of virtual indestructibility, highly malleable, and usually found in nature in a comparatively pure form. The history of gold is unequaled by that of any other metal because of its perceived value from earliest times.
Gold is one of the densest of all metals. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. It is also soft and the most malleable and ductile of the elements.
Because gold (Au) is visually pleasing and workable and does not tarnish or corrode, it was one of the first metals to attract human attention. Examples of amazing gold workmanship survive from ancient Egyptian, Minoan, Assyrian, and Etruscan artisans, and gold continues to be a highly favoured material out of which to craft jewelry and other decorative objects.