Nitrogen is the chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and (separated far from others) by Scottish doctor Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally given/gave the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogene was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790 when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates. Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Greek a¼Î¶ÏÏÎ¹ÎºÏÏ “no life”, as it is a (not breathing)nt gas; this name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Italian, Russian, Romanian, Portuguese and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds.
Nitrogen is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens. It is a common element in the universe, guessed at about seventh in total (oversupply/large amount) in the Milky Way and the Solar System. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a clear/white and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N2. Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth’s atmosphere, making it the most plentiful uncombined element. Nitrogen happens in all (living things), mostly in amino acids (and this way proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the energy move (from one place to another) molecule adenosine triphosphate. The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most plentiful element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the (locations on the Earth that support life) and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere.
Many industrially important compounds, such as strong-smelling chemical, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and bombs), and (poisonous chemical)s, contain nitrogen. The very strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (Na¡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after deadly gas (CO3), rules nitrogen chemistry. This causes difficulty for both (living things) and industry in converting N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time means that burning, exploding, or rotting nitrogen compounds to form nitrogen gas releases large amounts of often useful energy. Synthetically produced strong-smelling chemical and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, and fertiliser nitrates are key (things that dirty the air, oceans, etc.) in the eutrophication of water systems.
Apart from its use in fertilisers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a part of organic compounds as (many different kinds of people or things) as Kevlar used in high-strength fabric and cyanoacrylate used in superglue. Nitrogen is a part of every major (related to medical drugs) drug class, including germ-killing drugs. Many drugs are imitations or prodrugs of natural nitrogen-containing signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin and nitroprusside control blood pressure by (chemically processing and using up) into nitric oxide. Many well known nitrogen-containing drugs, such as the natural (drug that gives you energy) and morphine or the syntheically produced chemicals (that give energy), act on receptors of animal brain chemicals.