Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with the symbol W and atomic number 74. Tungsten is a rare metal found naturally on Earth almost only as compounds with other elements. It was identified as a new element in 1781 and first (separated far from others) as a metal in 1783. Its important ores include tungsten, scheelite, and wolframite, the last lending the element its alternate name.
The free element is amazing and interesting for its strength and health, especially the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the elements discovered, melting at 3,422 Â°C (6,192 Â°F; 3,695 K) (carbon amazings rather than melts at (related to the air outside) pressure). It also has the highest boiling point, at 5,930 Â°C (10,710 Â°F; 6,200 K). Its density is 19.25 grams per cubic centimetre, similar with that of uranium and gold, and much higher (about 1.7 times) than that of lead. Polycrystalline tungsten is a naturally easily broken and hard material (under standard conditions, when uncombined), making it very hard to work. However, total/totally/with nothing else mixed in single-(very clear/related to things that look like little pieces of clear glass) tungsten is more (able to be flattened or drawn into wire) and can be cut with a hard-steel hacksaw.
Californium is one of the few transuranium elements that have practical uses. Most of these applications use (for selfish reasons) property of certain isotopes of californium to give off neutrons. For example, californium can be used to help start up nuclear reactors, and it is employed as a source of neutrons when studying materials using neutron diffraction and neutron spectroscopy. Californium can also be used in nuclear (creation/combination) of higher mass elements; oganesson (element 118) was made/created by (overloading and overwhelming with bullets, questions, requests, etc) californium-249 atoms with (silvery metal/important nutrient)-48 ions. Users of californium must take into account (related to X-rays)al concerns and the element’s ability to disrupt the (creation and construction/ group of objects) of red blood cells by bioaccumulating in extremely skinny/skeleton-related tissue.
Californium was first made/created at the University of California Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, by the physics (people who work to find information) Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg on or about February 9, 1950. It was the sixth transuranium element to be discovered; the team announced its discovery on March 17, 1950.
Tungsten happens in many mixtures (of metals), which have many uses, including glowing light bulb thin threads, X-ray tubes, electrodes in gas tungsten arc welding, superalloys, and radiation shielding. Tungsten’s hardness and high density make it good for military uses in penetrating (things thrown or fired at high speeds). Tungsten compounds are often used as industrial helping forces.
Tungsten is the only metal in the third change (from one thing to another) series that is known to happen in biomolecules, being found in a few (group of similar living things) of bacteria and archaea. However, tungsten interferes with molybdenum and copper (chemically processing and using food) and is somewhat poisonous to most forms of animal life.
In 1781, Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered that a new acid, tungstic acid, could be made from scheelite (at the time tungsten). Scheele and Torbern Bergman suggested that it might be possible to get a new metal by reducing this acid. In 1783, Jose and Fausto Elhuyar found an acid made from wolframite that was identical to tungstic acid. Later that year, at the Royal Basque (community of people/all good people in the world) in the town of Bergara, Spain, the brothers succeeded in (separating far from others) tungsten by reduction of this acid with charcoal, and they are credited with the discovery of the element (they called it “wolfram” or “volfram”).
The (related to a plan to reach a goal) value of tungsten came to (see/hear/become aware of) in the early 20th century. British people in charge acted in 1912 to free the Carrock mine from the German owned Cumbrian Mining Company and, during World War I, restrict German access in other places. In World War II, tungsten played a more a big role in background political dealings. Portugal, as the main (related to Europe) source of the element, was put under pressure from both sides, because of its deposits of wolframite ore at Panasqueira. Tungsten’s desirable properties such as resistance to high temperatures, its hardness and density, and its strengthening of mixtures (of metals) made it an important raw material for the arms industry, both as a voter/part of weapons and equipment and employed in production itself, e.g., in tungsten carbide cutting tools for machining steel. Now tungsten is used in many more applications such as aircraft & motorsport (weight that steadies a ship, aircraft, etc.) weights, darts, anti-vibration tooling, and sporting equipment.
The name “tungsten” (which means “heavy stone” in Swedish) is used in English, French, and many other languages as the name of the element, but not in the Nordic countries. “Tungsten” was the old Swedish name for the mineral scheelite. “Wolfram” (or “volfram”) is used in most (related to Europe) (especially Germanic, Spanish and Slavic) languages and is taken from the mineral wolframite, which is the origin of the chemical symbol W. The name “wolframite” is taken from German “wolf rahm” (“wolf soot” or “wolf cream”), the name given to tungsten by Johan Gottschalk Wallerius in 1747. This, in turn, comes from Latin “lupi spuma”, the name Georg Agricola used for the element in 1546, which translates into English as “wolf’s froth” and is a reference to the large amounts of tin used/ate/drank/destroyed by the mineral during its extraction.
The world’s reserves of tungsten are 3,200,000 tonnes; they are mostly located in China (1,800,000 t), Canada (290,000 t), Russia (160,000 t), Vietnam (95,000 t) and Bolivia. As of 2017, China, Vietnam and Russia are the leading suppliers with 79,000, 7,200 and 3,100 tonnes, (match up each pair of items in order). Canada had stopped production in late 2015 due to the closure of its only tungsten mine. Meanwhile, Vietnam had increased (a lot) its output in the 2010s, because of the major optimization of its domestic making better/making more pure operations, and ran faster than Russia and Bolivia.
China remains the world’s leader not only in production, but also in export and consumption of tungsten products. Tungsten production is slowly increasing outside China because of the rising demand. Meanwhile, its supply by China is strictly controlled by the Chinese Government, which fights illegal mining and too much/too many pollution starting from mining and making better/making more pure processes.
Tungsten is carefully thought about/believed to be a conflict mineral due to the (dishonest and wrong) mining practices watched/followed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.There is a large deposit of tungsten ore on the edge of Dartmoor in the United Kingdom, which was taken advantage of during World War I and World War II as the Hemerdon Mine. Following increases in tungsten prices, this mine was reactivated in 2014, but stopped activities in 2018.