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Ytterbium is a chemical element with the symbol Yb and atomic number 70. It is the fourteenth and next-to-the-last element in the lanthanide series, which is the basis of the relative (firm and steady nature/lasting nature/strength) of its +2 oxidation state. However, like the other lanthanides, its most common oxidation state is +3, as in its oxide, halides, and other compounds. In water-based solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, (able to be dissolved in something) ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. Because of its closed-shell electron setup, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides.

In 1878, the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac separated from the rare earth “erbia” another independent part, which he called “ytterbia”, for Ytterby, the village in Sweden near where he found the new part of erbium. He suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element that he called “ytterbium” (in total, four elements were named after the village, the others being yttrium, terbium, and erbium). In 1907, the new earth “lutecia” was separated from ytterbia, from which the element “lutecium” (now lutetium) was (pulled out or taken from something else) by Georges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach, and Charles James. After some discussion, Marignac’s name “ytterbium” was kept/held. A (compared to other things) total/totally/with nothing else mixed in sample of the metal was not received/got until 1953. Now, ytterbium is mainly used as a dopant of stainless steel or active laser media, and less often as a (ray of invisible energy) source.

Natural ytterbium is a mixture of seven stable isotopes, which completely are present at concentrations of 0.3 parts per million. This element is mined in China, the United States, Brazil, and India in form of the minerals monazite, euxenite, and xenotime. The ytterbium concentration is low because it is found only among many other rare-earth elements; more than that, it is among the least plentiful. Once (pulled out or taken from something else) and prepared, ytterbium is somewhat dangerous as an eye and skin irritant. The metal is a fire and explosion danger/risk.

Physical properties
Ytterbium is a soft, bendable and (able to be flattened or drawn into wire) chemical element that displays a bright silvery shine when total/totally/with nothing else mixed in. It is a rare-earth element, and it is easily (mixed with and became part of a liquid) by the strong mineral acids. It reacts slowly with cold water and it oxidizes slowly in air.[7]

Ytterbium has three give out/set asideropes labeled by the Greek letters alpha, beta and gamma; their change temperatures are aˆ’13 °C and 795 °C,[7] although the exact change temperature depends on the pressure and stress.[8] The beta give out/set asiderope (6.966 g/cm3) exists at room temperature, and it has a face-centered cubic crystal structure. The high-temperature gamma give out/set asiderope (6.57 g/cm3) has a body-centered cubic (very clear/related to things that look like little pieces of clear glass) structure.[7] The alpha give out/set asiderope (6.903 g/cm3) has a six-sided (very clear/related to things that look like little pieces of clear glass) structure and is stable at low temperatures.[9] The beta give out/set asiderope has a metallic electrical (ability to let electricity flow) at (usual/ commonly and regular/ healthy) (related to the air outside) pressure, but it becomes an (element used to make electronic circuits) when exposed to a pressure of about 16,000 atmospheres (1.6 GPa). Its electrical resistivity increases ten times upon (press or force into a smaller space)ion to 39,000 atmospheres (3.9 GPa), but then drops to about 10% of its room-temperature resistivity at about 40,000 atm (4.0 GPa).[7][10]

In contrast with the other rare-earth metals, which usually have antiferromagnetic and/or ferromagnetic properties at low temperatures, ytterbium is paramagnetic at temperatures above 1.0 kelvin.[11] However, the alpha give out/set asiderope is diamagnetic.[8] With a melting point of 824 °C and a boiling point of 1196 °C, ytterbium has the smallest liquid range of all the metals.[7]

Opposite to most other lanthanides, which have a close-packed six-sided (something made of crossed strips of wood, metal, etc.), ytterbium makes crystals/becomes clear and real in the face-centered cubic system. Ytterbium has a density of 6.973 g/cm3, which is much lower than those of the close-by lanthanides, thulium (9.32 g/cm3) and lutetium (9.841 g/cm3). Its melting and boiling points are also much lower than those of thulium and lutetium. This is due to the closed-shell electron setup of ytterbium ([Xe] 4f14 6s2), which causes only the two 6s electrons to be available for metallic (gluing or joining together of two things) (in contrast to the other lanthanides where three electrons are available) and increases ytterbium’s metallic radius.[9]

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